Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

Tables and Figures

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pp. vii-viii

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On Terminology and Orthography

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p. ix

Racial terminology presents manifold problems when writing after – and when attempting to write ourselves out of – apartheid. While some scholars have tried to minimise their use of such terminology as a protest against its persistent racialising logic, I use the terms ‘African...

Abbreviations

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p. x

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xi-xiv

As a close reader of acknowledgement pages, I have learned that writing good history hinges on having good friendships. I can only hope that this study is as rich as the intellectual comradeship that went into it. First, the women and men affiliated with Inanda Seminary, past...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-17

Inanda Seminary stands some fifteen miles north of Durban, Kwa- Zulu-Natal, its verdant campus separated from the township around it by a long driveway and an electric fence. Amidst whitewashed buildings and jacarandas, neatly attired schoolgirls file between classrooms...

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Chapter One: Social Reproduction in the Making of a‘Benevolent Empire’ 1835–1885

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pp. 18-52

‘The whole system of schools in this mission needs reforming,’ Henry Bridgman wrote to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions on behalf of his American Zulu Mission in 1864. ‘We absolutely need now, a girls Seminary, modelled after Mt. Holyoke...

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Chapter Two: Domestic Revolutions and the Feminisation of Schooling in Natal 1885–1910

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pp. 53-86

In 1894, Native Schools Inspector Robert Plant concluded of Inanda that he had ‘nothing but praise to give. The modesty, cleanliness, good behaviour, general intelligence, and industry shown by the girls generally is most creditable both to themselves and the ladies in charge.’...

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Chapter Three: New African Women’s Work in Segregationist South Africa 1910–1948

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pp. 87-119

In honour of Inanda Seminary’s seventieth anniversary, over 500 alumnae descended upon the campus in 1939. After a ceremony featuring Lucy Isaac, the oldest alumna, the women crowded into the chapel to hear the day’s keynote speaker: alumna Ntombi Mndima...

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Chapter four: Education Policy and the Gendered Making of Separate Development 1948–1976

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pp. 120-162

In late 1956, Adams College held its last service. During a storm that pelted the iron-roofed chapel with ominous force, a full congregation tearfully sang ‘God Be with You until We Meet Again’. ‘Two Native women students in the choir stopped singing because they were...

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Chapter Five: Educated African Women in a Time of Political Revolution 1976–1994

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pp. 163-190

In June 1976, Sikose Mji was training as a secretary at Inanda, in the course that had been launched with funding from American corporations avoiding divestment and with the support of KwaZulu leader Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi. But Mji was not interested in...

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Epilogue

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pp. 191-199

Post-apartheid educational transformations will hinge on concurrent transformations in the economy and society – which remain characterised by striking degrees of progress towards gender and racial equity in some dimensions, but limited by deepening class divisions...

Notes

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pp. 200-264

Bibliography

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pp. 265-293

Index

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pp. 294-312

Reconsiderations in Southern African History

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