Front Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Foreword

Paul DeGregorio, Ray Martinez

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pp. ix-xii

In November of 2000, like millions of other Americans, we sat riveted while watching election officials in Florida recount presidential ballots. We closely followed the ensuing litigation and, ultimately, the decision handed down by the United States Supreme Court that decided the presidential contest. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

As volume editors, we have many people to thank for their help in making this project happen. The first phase involved the convening of a workshop in Salt Lake City, Utah, sponsored by the University of Utah and the Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project. ...

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Introduction: Studying Election Fraud

R. Michael Alvarez, Thad E. Hall, Susan D. Hyde

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pp. 1-18

In 2006 alone, significant allegations of election fraud surrounded presidential elections in Italy, Mexico, and several former Soviet republics. In the United States, concerns have been raised regarding all aspects of elections, from voter registration fraud to voting machine security, especially since the 2000 presidential election, ...

Part One: Defining Election Fraud: The United States in Comparative Perspective

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1. Corruption of the Election Process under U.S. Federal Law

Craig C. Donsanto

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pp. 21-36

Election fraud can be viewed as a purely legal phenomenon. In this context, election fraud is whatever is defined in the law as such, though its definition can change as the social, political, and technological aspects of elections change. ...

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2. International Principles for Election Integrity

Thad E. Hall, Tova Andrea Wang

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pp. 37-49

Election fraud, as currently defined, was a routine occurrence in the early history of the United States. George Washington won an election in colonial Virginia in part by spending lavishly on alcohol for voters on election day, and his fellow Founding Father, James Madison, lost an election in Virginia in part because he refused to spend money on such things. ...

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3. Beyond Election Fraud: Manipulation, Violence, and Foreign Power Intervention

Gamze Çavdar

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pp. 50-68

As multiparty competition has expanded to many parts of the world, the challenge of ensuring the integrity and quality of elections is no longer limited to well-established and newly emerging democracies. Elections now take place in ever more challenging environments, including territories under military occupation. ...

Part Two: Measuring Election Fraud: Learning from Observational Data

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4. Measuring Perceptions of Election Threats: Survey Data from Voters and Elites

R. Michael Alvarez, Thad E. Hall

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pp. 71-88

In the United States since the 2000 election there have been concerns raised regarding electoral irregularities—either intentional election fraud or unintentional problems in the election that result in an inaccurate (and thus sometimes in the eyes of the losing side, fraudulent) outcome.1 ...

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5. Caught in the Act: Recent Federal Election Fraud Cases

Delia Bailey

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pp. 89-98

Since the 2000 election, election fraud has entered into discussions of election reform at an increasing rate—be these discussions within the academic community, among politicians, in the mainstream media, or in the blogosphere. Yet there is little empirical research on the extent and nature of recent election fraud in the United States. ...

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6. Correlates of Fraud: Studying State Election Fraud Allegations

R. Michael Alvarez, Frederick J. Boehmke

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pp. 99-111

Maintaining the integrity of the electoral process is a fundamental goal of election administrators in democracies around the world. If questions arise about the integrity of an election, the legitimacy of the subsequent governing regime can—and often is—undermined. ...

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7. Fraud or Failure? What Incident Reports Reveal about Election Anomalies and Irregularities

D. Roderick Kiewiet, Thad E. Hall, R. Michael Alvarez, Jonathan N. Katz

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pp. 112-129

When things go wrong in elections involving direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting technology, these episodes are viewed by many as proof of the vulnerability, or at least the unreliability, of these systems. Claims by election officials that such problems are “par for the course” in elections or symptomatic of “growing pains” associated with implementing a new technology ...

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8. Identifying and Preventing Signature Fraud on Ballot Measure Petitions

Todd Donovan, Daniel A. Smith

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pp. 130-146

Most studies of election fraud focus on what happens once voters try to cast their ballots. However, important forms of fraud can also occur before election day. In this chapter, we focus on one such form of fraud: the forging of signatures in order to place an initiative or referendum on a statewide ballot. ...

Part Three: Detecting Election Fraud: Techniques and Consequences

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9. The Case of the 2002 General Election

R. Michael Alvarez, Jonathan N. Katz

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pp. 149-161

By its very nature, election fraud—which we define as efforts to use illegal means to alter election outcomes—should be difficult to detect. After all, given that documented evidence of election fraud is highly likely to result in legal action and criminal penalties, agents committing fraud have very strong incentives to cover their tracks. ...

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10. Election Forensics: The Second-Digit Benford's Law Test and Recent American Presidential Elections

Walter R. Mebane Jr.

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pp. 162-181

Arguably we are not much closer than we were one hundred years ago to understanding how to administer elections that not only are secure and fair but are widely believed to be secure and fair. As long as there have been elections there have been election scandals, and certainly throughout the history of the United States.1 ...

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11. On the Trail of Fraud: Estimating the Flow of Votes between Russia's Elections

Mikhail Myagkov, Peter C. Ordeshook, Dimitry Shaikin

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pp. 182-200

Although the outcome of Russia’s 2004 presidential election was never in doubt, the balloting nonetheless yielded surprises. For example, in Ingushetia and Kabardino-Balkaria, ostensibly 98 percent of the eligible electorate voted, with 96 percent supporting the winner and incumbent Vladimir Putin. ...

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12. How International Election Observers Detect and Deter Fraud

Susan D. Hyde

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pp. 201-215

International monitoring of elections is intended to promote democracy by providing an independent evaluation of whether a given election was democratic, detecting fraud when it exists, deterring fraud, and increasing voter confidence in the electoral process.1 ...

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13. Unintended Consequences of Election Monitoring

Alberto Simpser

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pp. 216-234

As elections have spread to most of the world’s countries, organized efforts by nongovernmental groups and international organizations to discourage cheating have become the norm.1 The centerpiece of such efforts, election monitoring, seeks to change the behavior of would-be cheaters, specifically to prevent cheating by rendering it more risky and more costly, ideally, prohibitively so. ...

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Conclusion: Understanding Election Fraud

R. Michael Alvarez, Thad E. Hall, Susan D. Hyde

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pp. 235-242

Our intention when we decided to hold a small conference on election fraud and then organize the contributions from that conference into this edited volume was to kindle scholarly research on a subject we think is academically and politically important. ...

Contributors

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pp. 243-244

Index

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pp. 245-256

Back Cover

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