We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Contesting Trade in Central America

Market Reform and Resistance

By Rose J. Spalding

Publication Year: 2014

Through detailed case studies on Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Nicaragua, Spalding examines the debate surrounding the adoption of CAFTA alongside the simultaneous changes to the economic and political landscape of Central America at the turn of this century.

Published by: University of Texas Press


pdf iconDownload PDF

Title Page, Copyright Page

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. i-vi


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. vii-viii

Acronyms and Initialisms

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. ix-xviii

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. xix-xxiv

I want to begin by thanking the several hundred scholars, activists, and public servants in Central America who contributed to my understanding of the region as I conducted field research in Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Nicaragua over the 2003–2010 period. Many of them met with me repeatedly, read early...

read more

Introduction, Overview, and Methods

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 1-19

After sixteen years of “governing from below,” Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega returned to power in Nicaragua in 2007, once again denouncing the forces of imperialism and promising to address economic grievances. Joining Ortega, Honduran president “Mel” Zelaya (2006–2009) linked forces...

read more

1. The March to Market Reform in Central America

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 20-60

Market reform made deep inroads in Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s, with Central American countries among the regional leaders. Their market shift was noteworthy, given the strong statist features of these economies in the early 1980s. In Costa Rica, then Latin America’s solitary social democracy...

read more

2. Rule Makers and Rule Takers: Negotiating CAFTA

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 61-94

In 2002, political leaders of five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the United States began preparatory work on a free trade agreement. Formal negotiation started in January 2003 and proceeded through nine brisk rounds; the draft agreement...

read more

3. Resistance: Competing Voices

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 95-125

The rosy images used to sell CAFTA were not equally persuasive to all. Those who had become skeptical during prior market reforms often resisted these overtures, and some became early critics. For others who were initially hopeful, the exaggerated claims that were characteristic of the campaign gave way...

read more

4. Ratification Politics: In the Chamber and in the Street

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 126-157

Before CAFTA could enter into effect, legislative approval was required. Ratification by the legislature was designed to ensure that support extended beyond the executive branch. In theory, approval at this second level of review would infuse the new rules with greater legitimacy and bolster public acceptance...

read more

5. After CAFTA: Anti-Mining Movements, Investment Disputes, and New Organizational Territory

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 158-187

By 2010, four publicly disclosed complaints had been filed against Central American governments under CAFTA-DR, two of them by gold mining companies against the government of El Salvador (Antell, Carlson, McCandless 2010). As gold mining turned controversial and the Salvadoran government...

read more

6. Electoral Challenges and Transitions

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 188-205

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, market fundamentalism lost its luster and Latin American politics shifted leftward.1 This transition is commonly understood to be the result of two simultaneous developments: the region-wide consolidation of democracy, and popular disappointment with...

read more

7. Post-Neoliberalism and Alternative Approaches to Change

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 206-239

As market reform creates displacement, disenchantment, and doubt, it builds tension and pressure for change. In different ways, post-neoliberal regimes begin to tip away from further market liberalization and move toward the goal of market regulation, attenuating damages, providing transition assistance...

read more

Appendix A. Note on Interview Methodology

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 240-243

This manuscript draws on interviews with 208 direct participants in and observers of the Central American economic reform debate. These interviews were conducted with participants from Nicaragua (2003, 2006, 2007, 2008), El Salvador (2004, 2005, 2010), and Costa Rica (2005, 2010). Most respondents were chosen based on their...

Appendix B. Presidential Election Results: Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Nicaragua, 1978–2011

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 244-246


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 247-268


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 269-304


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 305-326

E-ISBN-13: 9780292754614
E-ISBN-10: 0292754612
Print-ISBN-13: 9780292754591
Print-ISBN-10: 0292754590

Page Count: 350
Illustrations: 1 map, 1 b/w photo, 6 line drawings, 4 charts, 21 tables
Publication Year: 2014

OCLC Number: 872114885
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Contesting Trade in Central America

Research Areas


UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • Free trade -- Central America.
  • Central America -- Commerce.
  • Central America -- Foreign economic relations.
  • CAFTA (Free trade agreement) (2005).
  • Central America -- Commercial policy.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access