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Friendship and Politics in Post-Revolutionary France

By Sarah Horowitz

Publication Year: 2013

In Friendship and Politics in Post-Revolutionary France, Sarah Horowitz brings together the political and cultural history of post-revolutionary France to illuminate how French society responded to and recovered from the upheaval of the French Revolution. The Revolution led to a heightened sense of distrust and divided the nation along ideological lines. In the wake of the Terror, many began to express concerns about the atomization of French society. Friendship, though, was regarded as one bond that could restore trust and cohesion. Friends relied on each other to serve as confidantes and men and women described friendship as a site of both pleasure and connection. Because trust and cohesion were necessary to the functioning of post-revolutionary parliamentary life, politicians turned to friends and ideas about friendship to create this solidarity. Relying on detailed analyses of politicians’ social networks, new tools from arising from the digital humanities, and examinations of their behind-the-scenes political transactions, Horowitz makes clear the connection between politics and emotions in the early nineteenth century, and she reevaluates the role of women in political life by showing the ways in which the personal was the political in the post-revolutionary era.

Published by: Penn State University Press


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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv


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pp. v-vi


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pp. vii-viii

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pp. ix-xii

From the beginning of this project, I have relied on the advice and guidance of mentors, teachers, colleagues, family, and friends and am grateful to have this opportunity to acknowledge the support that made this work possible. My greatest intellectual debt is to Carla Hesse, an adviser par excellence who...

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Introduction:Friendship in Post-Revolutionary France

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pp. 1-20

In a quiet corner of Père Lachaise Cemetery stands the tomb of two men: Pierre Jean de Béranger and Jacques Antoine Manuel. Neither man is particularly well-known today but the two were famous in their time. Béranger was a songwriter who was known as “the national poet” in the early nineteenth

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1: The Sentimental Education of the Political

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pp. 21-40

The uses of affection and mobilization of personal ties to practice politics emerged in part from long-standing traditions that dated back to at least the sixteenth century. Throughout the Old Regime, ruling elites relied on social relationships to access power. Love also had a public role as the bond of the...

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2: The Politics of Anomie

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pp. 41-64

When Joseph de Maistre coined the term “individualism” in 1820, he described the problem as being political in nature. He stated that the ideological tensions in France had led to “the profound and terrifying division of souls, this infinite division of doctrines, this political Protestantism which is pushed to...

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3: Friends with Benefits

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pp. 65-90

So wrote François Guizot to Victor de Broglie in September 1832.1 Although the two men were best friends, their correspondence was rarely affectionate. But in the fall of 1832, France was undergoing a political and social crisis. Cholera was ravaging the population and Casimir Périer, the man whose...

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4: Post-Revolutionary Social Networks

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pp. 91-110

If patterns of epistolary communication highlight a series of understandings about the workings of friendship, social network analysis offers another perspective. Looking at the networks of Chateaubriand, Guizot, Béranger, and some of the women to whom they were close illuminates crucial structural...

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5: The Politics of Male Friendship

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pp. 111-132

Filed among Guizot’s personal papers are letters from other prominent politicians of the July Monarchy, such as Molé and Thiers. Guizot’s relationships with these men were never easy; they were his rivals for power, and if he occasionally allied himself with one of them, he was more commonly their...

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6: The Bonds of Concord:Women and Politics

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pp. 133-153

Because women could not vote or hold office during the post-revolutionary political regimes, they could not serve as proxies or allies in the way that male friends could. Yet despite this, many of the women studied here performed vital functions within the political system throughout the period of parliamentary...

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pp. 154-163

In establishing a social order based on individualism and in giving birth to ideological conflict, the Revolution led the citizens of early nineteenth-century France to be fearful of a lack of social cohesion. Politics was divisive, especially for men, and public life was an arena of suspicion and anomie. As...

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Appendix A:Béranger, Chateaubriand, Guizot,and Their Friends

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pp. 164-169

Pierre Jean de Béranger (1780–1857) was descended from artisans and innkeepers and raised largely by his aunt, a devoted republican. During the Directory, he tried unsuccessfully to make his name as a man of letters and was saved from penury when he received patronage from Lucien Bonaparte. He started...

Appendix B: Detailed Social Networks in the 1820s and 1840s

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pp. 170-174


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pp. 175-196


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pp. 197-210


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pp. 211-227

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9780271061092
Print-ISBN-13: 9780271061924
Print-ISBN-10: 0271061928

Page Count: 224
Publication Year: 2013

OCLC Number: 871258531
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Friendship and Politics in Post-Revolutionary France

Research Areas


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Subject Headings

  • Friendship -- Political aspects -- France -- History -- 19th century.
  • France -- Politics and government -- 19th century.
  • Political culture -- France -- History -- 19th century.
  • Politicians -- France -- Social life and customs -- 19th century.
  • Politicians -- Social networks -- France -- History -- 19th century.
  • Women -- Political activity -- France -- History -- 19th century.
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