Cover

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Contents

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List of Maps

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p. vii

List of Photographs

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pp. viii-ix

Abbreviations

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pp. x-xi

Note on Transliteration

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p. xii

Preface

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pp. xiii-xvi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xviii

MANY INDIVIDUALS HAVE contributed to this book and deserve recognition. First, we would like to thank Provost Don Betz, Dean of Liberal ArtsT.H. Baughman, and Chair of History...

Part One. The Korean War: A Short History

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1. Background and Origins of the War

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pp. 3-14

IT IS ONE of the more unfortunate and ironic events in history that Korea, a nation that prior to 1945 included the most homogeneous and united of all peoples, should become a nation divided.Whatever differences may have...

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2. The Opening Phase: South toward Pusan, North to the Yalu

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pp. 15-20

WHEN THE NORTH Korean army invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, it is hard to conceive of a nation more ill-prepared for war than the United States, psychologically as well as militarily. World War II had...

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3. China Enters the War

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pp. 21-24

WASHINGTON, OBVIOUSLY, HAD concluded that neither China nor the Soviet Union would intervene if the UN forces advanced north of the 38th Parallel. By late September, however, Washington had already received...

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4. The Chosin Reservoir Retreat and Advance to the North

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pp. 25-34

ON OCTOBER 25,1950, the ROK First Division captured the first Chinese soldier, a clear indication Chinese troops were entering North Korea. The prisoner reported thousands of Chinese soldiers had already crossed the...

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5. Truce Talks and Prison Riots

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pp. 35-39

CLEARLY, THE BATTERED Communist forces lacked the firepower to break through the UN lines on a wide front. Realistically, they could no longer expect to recapture Seoul and drive into South Korea. They could...

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6. Trench Warfare and Peace

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pp. 40-48

IN THE MEANTIME, the war went on. Since the end of 1951, when the two sides agreed on the demarcation line, the nature of the war had changed. It was no longer a war to "win," and every UN soldier soon knew...

Part Two. Many Faces, One War

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7. Getting to Korea

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pp. 51-54

For many soldiers, part of the trauma of going to war is getting there. Going to war for most meant tearful goodbyes at home, followed by hours of homesickness and loneliness while en route. In the Korean War, most Americans traveled by bus, train, and...

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8. A Mortar Man's Story

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pp. 55-64

Like many other youths at the time, Bobby Martin decided to join the army and get his service obligation out of the way. Unfortunately, this meant he was trained and certain to be called up during the Korean War. Assigned to an 81mm mortar section...

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9. Escaping the Trap

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pp. 65-75

The U.S. Army assigned a significant role to artillery in Korea, especially after the war stalemated and the period of trench warfare began. Since the UN forces had control of the air and roads, equipping and supplying ammunition for the big guns...

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10. A North Korean Officer's Story

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pp. 76-84

When North Korea attacked South Korea on June 25, 1950, more than eighty thousand soldiers of the North Korean People's Army (NKPA) crossed the 38th...

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11. China's Crouching Dragon

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pp. 85-94

The first encounter between Chinese soldiers and an American regiment in the Korean War was accidental. In fact, the Chinese armies made every effort to avoid U.S. troops during their early intervention. On the night of November I, 1950, the...

Part Three. Chosin Accounts

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12. The Chosin Reservoir: A Marine's Story

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pp. 97-116

Some of the toughest fighting in the Korean War took place at the Chosin Reservoir, where the unexpected entry of the Chinese into the war caught the First Marine Division and the Seventh Division unprepared as they were driving north toward the...

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13. The Chosin Reservoir: A Chinese Captain's Story

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pp. 117-124

During the CPVF's second offensive campaign, between November 25 and December 24, 1950, its Ninth Army Group, which included the Twentieth, Twenty-sixth, and Twenty-seventh Armies, attacked the UN forces led by the U.S. First Marine...

Part Four. On the Front Lines

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14. The Hwachon Reservoir Fighting

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pp. 127-130

In early June 1951, only a few weeks before the beginning of the peace talks, General Van Fleet ordered the Eighth Army to advance on a limited front to consolidate the UN positions (Operation Piledriver). A squad leader at the time, Staff Sergeant...

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15. Life on the MLR

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pp. 131-133

This marine, Private First Class Bruce Lippert, provides few details about combat operations in Korea; yet, he was wounded twice. He does, however, provide a glimpse...

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16. A BAR Man's Story

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pp. 134-140

It is generally recognized that one of the most dangerous jobs in the infantry was to operate a Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR). The following soldier, Sergeant Albert Snyder, did just that prior to becoming a squad leader. Arriving in Korea in April...

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17. First Combat

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pp. 141-149

This story is about a WWII veteran sergeant, experienced and knowledgeable in all forms of small arms combat, and a totally green private first class (one of the authors of this book), who faced an enemy attack for the first time. The story reveals the value of...

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18. Outpost Harry

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pp. 150-155

Between June 10 and June 18, 195 3 Just weeks before the end of the war, the Chinese made a determined attempt to take Outpost Harry, one of a series of outposts in the central section of the front. The defense of the outpost was assigned to the U.S. Third...

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19. A ROK Lieutenant Survives the Bloody Ridges

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pp. 156-172

Lee Chan Shik was born in Gansuh-gun, Pyongannam-do Province, in northern Korea. He emigrated to South Korea after the liberation in 1945. After the Korean...

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20. The Chinese Go Underground

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pp. 173-184

In the fall of 1951, both sides began to dig in and the stalemated war of the trenches began. The front lines actually changed very little for the remainder of the war. During this period the CPVF concentrated on strengthening their defensive lines, which they...

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21. North and South: A Korean Youth Serves in Both Armies

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pp. 185-198

Lee Young Ho was born in Seoul in 1933. He was a high school junior when the North Koreans attacked and captured the city in 1950. Following the invasion, the entire family remained inside their home to avoid contact with the North Koreans....

Part Five. Behind the Front Lines

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22. The "Lighter" Side of the War

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pp. 201-205

When WWII veterans returned, if they talked about the war at all it was most likely about some of the wild and humorous incidents they had experienced. Korean War veterans, on the other hand, seemed to have less to say about the humorous side of the...

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23. A Korean Housewife's Story

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pp. 206-209

Sometimes the saddest and most tragic stories in war are not about the soldiers, but about the civilians, especially the women and children. The Korean War, like WWII, saw thousands of civilian refugees on the roads enduring the hardships of a homeless...

Part Six. POW Camps: North and South

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24. An American Officer Observes the Koje Island Uprising

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pp. 213-217

In the spring of 1952, prisoner revolts on Koje Island and other POW camps were not only a gargantuan headache for UN Command, they were also a major obstacle to reaching an agreement in the peace negotiations. President Truman was determined...

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25. One Week of War, Three Years of Captivity

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pp. 216-234

This story is about a young American officer, First Lieutenant Wadie Rountree, who saw only about one week of action before his capture in July 1950. During the early weeks of his captivity, he survived the brutality of the "Tiger" a North Korean officer...

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26. A First Sergeant's Experience

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pp. 235-241

Not many soldiers wanted to go to Korea, but WWII veterans found it especially hard; after all, they had already served. In the early part of the war, however, their leadership and skills were desperately needed, and many veterans were called...

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27. Organizing the Riots on Koje: Colonel Zhao's Story

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pp. 242-258

By 1952, there were 132,000 Chinese and North Korean Communist prisoners in the UNC camps. About 70,000 of them were held at Koje Island, an isolated, hilly island a few miles across the sea from the shore of Pusan. On May 7, the prisoners in...

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Perspectives on the War

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pp. 259-264

IN JUNE 1950, the invading North Korean army, trained and advised by the Soviets, armed with Soviet weapons, and indoctrinated with the Communist rhetoric of its leader, Kim II Sung, quickly forced the ROK Army...

Notes

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pp. 265-272

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 273-279

Index

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pp. 280-291