Title Page, Copyright Page

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-vi

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

read more

Acknowledgements

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xiv

There are many people who helped me on the path to completing this book. Foremost among them is my family. My husband, James, took our boys on numerous day trips and weekend- long outings to provide me with the quiet, child- free space necessary for writing. The fact that this project is now complete...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-10

On a rare sunny January day in Ruston, Washington, hundreds of people lined the town’s streets and hillsides to catch a glimpse of destruction. Two miles away, across Puget Sound, on the south end of Vashon Island, crowds also stood waiting, binoculars pressed to their eyes, for the same reason. In between...

read more

1. The Tacoma Smelter

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 11-30

Few people who live outside of Washington State have ever heard of Ruston, Washington. The town is tiny, about one square mile, and is surrounded by Tacoma. Ruston is dominated by the ninety- plus- acre former smelter site, which occupies a prime Puget Sound waterfront location. The beauty of the area— with the snow- capped Olympic Mountains to the west, Puget Sound visible in three...

read more

2. City of Destiny, City of Smoke

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 31-54

ASARCO’s copper smelter was not the only industrial plant that was fouling Tacoma’s air. Tacoma, nicknamed the City of Destiny, decisively cast its lot with industry early in the twentieth century, inviting the use of its waters, land, and air for all types of industrial production with descriptions of the city’s industrial potential brimming with a sense of economic triumphalism. Always in competition...

read more

3. Uncovering a Crisis in El Paso

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 55-72

In the southwest border town of El Paso, Texas, ASARCO operated another massive smelter for much of the twentieth century. In contrast to Tacoma’s location on the foggy and rainy shores of Puget Sound, the El Paso smelter rose out of the parched Chihuahuan Desert, producing lead and copper from raw ore brought by rail from Mexican mines. In El Paso, the smelter’s fires were stoked largely by...

read more

4. Bunker Hill

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 73-110

In the spring of 1972, within a few weeks of the El Paso lead poisoning crisis becoming public, ASARCO chairman Charles F. Barber sent a letter to Frank Woodruff, the president of Bunker Hill Mining Company near Kellogg, Idaho. Barber was writing to alert Woodruff to the lead poisoning problem found in El Paso. He sent along an internal ASARCO report on the matter, which summarized...

read more

5. Tacoma: A Disaster Is Discovered

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 111-128

Only two months after El Paso’s lead poisoning crisis hit the front pages of newspapers across the United States, William Rodgers, a young professor of environmental law at the University of Washington, called for an investigation of the Tacoma smelter’s impact on the public health of children living nearby. In a letter to the mayor of Tacoma and the chairman of the newly formed Puget...

read more

6. A Carcinogenic Threat

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 129-154

If you drive north on Pearl Street in Tacoma and cross Forty- ninth Street heading toward Puget Sound, Pearl Street marks the division between the town of Ruston, on your right, and the city of Tacoma, on your left. Weathered wooden houses line Pearl Street and are interspersed with some local favorite businesses— the...

read more

7. Sacrificed

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 155-170

When summer finally comes and the blanket of clouds that seems to cover the Puget Sound region all winter and spring lifts, if you stand on a hill in Ruston and look out to the north and west, it is easy to forget that you are standing on a site where an environmental disaster slowly unfolded over a the space of a century. The blue Puget Sound sparkles in the sun, bright white sailboats dot Commencement...

read more

Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 171-174

Forty years after the discoveries at El Paso and Bunker Hill, half a world away, parents are still coping with the same anguish, their children poisoned, perhaps impaired for life because of a lack of industry and government commitment to protecting the health of people and the environment. If the U.S. experience of...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 175-226

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 227-238

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 239-242