Bonds of Alliance
Indigenous and Atlantic Slaveries in New France
Publication Year: 2014
Published by: The University of North Carolina Press
Title Page, Copyright Page
It is a pleasure to acknowledge the many people whose time, insight, and support made this book more than I could have made it on my own. But I do so with some apprehension, knowing that my debts are too numerous to name and that no acknowledgment is equal to any of the obligations I have...
Illustrations and Tables
Abbreviations and Short Titles
In the collections of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation rests an unusual relic of early modern slavery: a hand-crafted American Indian slave halter. It was fashioned in the mid-eighteenth century by a Native woman living near the Great Lakes, destined for a warrior in her village. The artisan...
Chapter One: I Make Him My Dog / My Slave
On April 12, 1680, a Belgian monk-turned- missionary named Louis Hennepin tinkered with a canoe on the banks of the Mississippi River. As two French servants boiled a wild turkey for his lunch, Hennepin surveyed the strange and beautiful country before him. His party had traveled the Mississippi...
Chapter Two: The Most Ignoble and Scandalous Kind of Subjection
About 1690 a slave trader known only as Captain Bernard sailed to the French Caribbean with a cargo of African captives. He sold nearly all of them to colonial buyers, but kept one, named Louis, to serve him on his return to France. Louis attended Bernard for a year or two before he was sold...
Chapter Three: Like Negroes in the Islands
Rumor spread quickly in the French Atlantic. Hundreds of people circulated regularly between the Caribbean and the Saint Lawrence in the early eighteenth century, and sharing news was among the first things merchants, officers, and sailors did when they arrived at port. No document survives to...
Chapter Four: Most of Them Were Sold to the French
In 1742 a small group of Sioux leaders accepted the invitation of Paul Marin, a French trader and minor colonial official, to negotiate an alliance with his governor in Montreal. French-Sioux relations had been turbulent over the previous half century, cycling rapidly from friendship to antipathy and...
Chapter Five: The Custom of the Country
In the rustic mission church at Michilimackinac, a small group gathered on July 11, 1745, as the Jesuit priest Pierre Du Jaunay baptized two Indians. The first was an Ojibwa woman whose late sister had been married to a voyageur named Charles Hamelin. The second was Hamelin’s slave, a...
Chapter Six: The Indian Is Not like the Negro
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville was not known for his keen understanding of Indians. Although often a brilliant synthesizer of colonial knowledge, which he avidly consumed during his two-year tour of North America, Bougainville had something of a tin ear when it came to the continent’s Natives...
Epilogue: Of the Indian Race
The alliances that allowed French expansion into the Pays d’en Haut in the 1660s brought indigenous and Atlantic slaveries into a dialogue that would shape Native and French colonial societies for a century. French losses in the Seven Years’ War drew them apart. Forced to cede Quebec in 1759 and...
Page Count: 424
Illustrations: 22 halftones
Publication Year: 2014
Series Title: Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia
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