Cover

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pp. C-C

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

Acknowledgments are often written in a rush as the deadline looms for publication, and this one is no different. Or at least that is my excuse for writing acknowledgments which may forget important folks who helped along the way and do injustice to my friends, family, and professional contacts...

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Note on Terminology

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pp. xiii-2

The United States has appropriated the word American for its citizens. While many people living in North, South, and Central America object to this— and I understand why— I use the word American to signify citizens of the United States because that is the commonly used term in the...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-20

Today’s Americans struggle with the meaning of American identity as they debate how many immigrants to admit, the extent to which civil rights and benefits should apply to newcomers, and whether or not there should be a guest worker program or a path to legalization. To those who study the history...

Part I: The Late Territorial Years, 1898–1912

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1: The Closed Door: Exclusion Reigns

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pp. 23-42

Miguel Antonio Otero Jr. considered himself an American and he was one. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1859 to a father and mother of Mexican and Anglo descent, respectively, Otero moved with his parents to the New Mexico Territory when he was two years old. Well educated, bilingual,...

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2: The Door Swings Inward: Pluralism and Marginalization

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pp. 43-64

Octaviano A. Larrazolo, a naturalized U.S. citizen formerly of Mexico and the Arizona territory, eventually settled in New Mexico during the 1890s. There the teacher turned lawyer ran for office unsuccessfully, several times. Despite his initial electoral failures— he would later become a Republican...

Part II: Transformations: The First World War Era, 1917–1922

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3: Changing Strategies for a New World

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pp. 67-82

Born in Mexico in 1866, Pedro Garcia de la Lama eventually immigrated to the New Mexican territory, becoming an American citizen in 1894. Two years later he moved to the Arizona territory to work as the editor of a Spanish- language newspaper, El Progreso. In 1902 he was called before...

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4: Marginalization Evolves: Image of a Temporary Worker

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pp. 83-100

Carl Trumbull Hayden, born in an adobe home in the Arizona territory in 1877, was reportedly the first Anglo child born in what would become the town of Tempe. He grew up to become one of the longest- serving legislators of the new state of Arizona. Elected as a Democrat in the first year of...

Part III: Immigration Restriction Debates, 1926–1930

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5: Closing the Door?

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pp. 103-118

By the mid- 1920s, Americans and Mexicans well understood how a swinging door for entering and exiting America could work. In 1917 the door swung inward to the United States— allowing Mexicans to enter due to exemptions from contract labor laws and the new literacy and head tax...

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6: Promotion of the Temporary Worker

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pp. 119-138

By the mid- 1920s, advocates for closing America’s borders to those from outside northwestern Europe succeeded in drastically reducing the admission of Asians and many Europeans into the United States. In the process they amassed substantial national influence, overwhelming the voices of...

Part IV: Repatriation, 1930–1935

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7: “To Keep America American”: The Door Swings Outward

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pp. 141-164

Born in Mexico circa 1907, Santiago Lopez grew up near Tucson, Arizona. At some point he returned to Mexico, but in 1925 he crossed the border again. Two years later the U.S. Border Patrol arrested Lopez, ordering him to leave the country. He did so, but within two hours walked back...

Notes

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pp. 165-216

Bibliography

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pp. 217-238

Index

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pp. 239-246

About the Author

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pp. 247-247