Cover

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Series Page, Title Page, Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

This volume results from a project for which Herman Diederiks had taken the initiative shortly before his death. In the course of that project, the contributions were discussed in three successive meetings: in Amsterdam (1997), Leuven, Belgium (1998), and Loures, Portugal (2000). ...

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Social Control and History: An Introduction

PIETER SPIERENBURG

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pp. 1-22

What is social control? If anything, it is a classic concept, which many scholars use as a matter of course. Few, however, care about providing an explicit statement of what they understand it to be. This classic notion is subjected to close scrutiny in the present collection. ...

Part One. Communities and Entrepreneurs

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pp. 23-24

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1. Social Control and Forms of Working-Class Socialibility in French Industrial Towns between the Mid-Nineteenth and the Mid-Twentieth Centuries

JEAN-PAUL BURDY

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pp. 25-69

The idea here is to analyze the forces and forms used for containment and social control in French urban settings, from the early period of industrialization (the 1830–1840s) to the interwar period (1920–1940), with emphasis on the creation of working-class or popular neighborhoods, followed by suburbs, as subdivisions of urban space. ...

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2. Control at the Workplace: Paternalism Reinvented in Victorian Britain

HAIA SHPAYER-MAKOV

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pp. 70-92

Scholars often observe that the concept of social control is problematic and lacks any uniform definition.1 In effect, any form of domination could be subsumed under this expression. Still, it is generally accepted that social control entails a relationship of power and involves attempts by superordinates to channel subordinates into “orderly behaviour regardless of what they [think] or [feel].”2 ...

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3. Social Change, Popular Movements, and Social Control in Scandinavia, 1864-1914

ULF DRUGGE

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pp. 93-111

In 1862, the Norwegian sociologist and social anthropologist Eilert Sundt (1817–1875) visited England. His biographer, the American sociologist Martin S. Allwood, noted that the size and wealth of England impressed and depressed Sundt: “[S]ome people cannot admit that new and foreign things surprise them, but I admit that I was almost overwhelmed at the sight of the power and might of this country, ...

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4. Social Control in Belgium: The Catholic Factor

JAN ART

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pp. 112-124

During the ancien régime the churches constituted an essential link in the system of social control in almost every western European country. In certain regions the Catholic Church fulfilled this role until far into the twentieth century. This was, for example, the case in Belgium, especially in the Flemish part of the country.1 ...

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5. Priceless Children? Penitentiary Congresses Debating Childhood: A Quest for Social Order in Europe, 1846-1895

CHRIS G. T. M. LEONARDS

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pp. 125-148

In the late spring of 1848, Willem Hendrik Suringar, chairman of the Dutch Prison Society, was very uneasy and concerned about the upheaval in several European cities, notably in Mannheim and Paris, but even in Amsterdam where, as he put it, “released prisoners could play a pernicious role and could threaten and endanger the tranquility, possessions, ...

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6. Caring or Controlling? The East End of London in the 1880s and 1890s

ROSEMARY O’DAY

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pp. 149-166

Britain had a mixed economy of welfare during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries—state, voluntary sector, family, and market were all involved. The fabric of society was made up of a “great ramshackle mass of private, pluralistic and voluntary institutions” as well as central and localgovernment.1 ...

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7. Community and Social Control: An Enquiry into the Dutch Experience

VINCENT SLEEBE

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pp. 167-190

Although the study of social control has been rather popular within the field of social science, this subject has been examined with a somewhat one-sided approach. Since the interest of social scientists and historians has been drawn mainly toward the state apparatus as an agent of social control, ...

Part Two. Policing and the State: Liberal vs. Totalitarian Regimes

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pp. 191-192

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8. Control and Legitimacy: The Police in Comparative Perspective since circa 1800

CLIVE EMSLEY

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pp. 193-209

When E. A. Ross coined the term “social control” at the beginning of the twentieth century, he argued that social order was not simply the product of law but involved the workings of much more complex phenomena. These phenomena could be moral and ethical, shaped from sentiment rather than utility, and enforced through, among other things, public opinion and personal discipline. ...

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9. Policing the Poor in England and France, 1850-1900

PAUL LAWRENCE

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pp. 210-225

The concept of social control has provoked a prolonged debate among sociologists and historians of all genres. First delineated by E. A. Ross in his 1901 work Social Control, its fundamental premise is that a multiplicity of agencies exist via which powerful elites attempt to shape society to their benefit and satisfaction. ...

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10. The Police, Gender, and Social Control: German Servants in Dutch Towns, 1918-1940

LEO LUCASSEN

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pp. 226-244

In April 1936 the head of the Leiden aliens police received a letter from Mrs. De Wilde, who accused her German servant of having an affair with her husband and who asked the police to expel her. Thereupon, the police interviewed all parties involved, starting with the husband. ...

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11. Some Thoughts on Social Control in "Totalitarian" Society: The Case of Nazi Germany

ERIC A. JOHNSON

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pp. 245-260

This essay and several that follow consider what many would believe to be the ultimate examples of social control in modern history, namely the allegedly totalitarian societies of the twentieth century under Nazi, Fascist, or Communist rule. Whereas one cannot contest that the leaders of these societies did most certainly develop organs of surveillance and enforcement ...

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12. Social Control in Fascist Italy: The Role of the Police

JONATHAN DUNNAGE

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pp. 261-280

This essay examines the evolution of the Italian police during the Fascist dictatorship. It aims to answer two closely related questions: To what extent did the policing of Fascist Italy represent a break in continuity with that of the liberal period? With how much success was the Mussolinian model of totalitarian social control implemented? ...

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13. Violence, Surveillance, and Denunciation: Social Cleavage in the Spanish Civil War and Francoism, 1936-1950

ANGELA CENARRO

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pp. 281-300

The aim of this essay is to offer an overview of how social control was exercised in Franco’s Spain. Some intellectual traditions, both Spanish and European, have tended to see Spain as a “different country,” set apart from the general currents of economic, social, and political developments in Europe. ...

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14. Vichy France: Police Forces and Policemen, 1940-1944

JEAN-MARC BERLIÈRE

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pp. 301-317

France was the only vanquished country to sign an armistice with Germany. It was also the only one to preserve an “independent” government on its territory during the Nazi occupation. This new situation, the new and unexpected players on the national stage, placed the French administration—especially its police—in an ambiguous position.1 ...

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15. Political Justice in the Netherlands: The Instumentalization of the Judicial System during the German Occupation, 1940-1945

GERALDIEN VON FRIJTAG DRABBE KÜNZEL

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pp. 318-329

Before the German attack on the Netherlands on May 10, 1940, the judicial system in the Netherlands had been a perfect example of how a system should be within a modern, democratic, liberal constitution: Montesquieu’s notion of the separation of powers, trias politica, had been evident. ...

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16. Policing Amsterdam during the German Occupation: How Radical Was the Break?

GUUS MEERSHOEK

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pp. 330-342

During the last two decades, research on National Socialism has become a transnational enterprise. Historiographical debates on the topic are no longer restricted to national communities of historians. At the same time, major new areas of research have opened up. Research on the Holocaust has extended from the top to the lower levels of the administration of destruction. ...

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17. Control and Consent in Eastern Europe's Workers' States, 1945-1989: Some Reflections on Totalitarianism, Social Organization, and Social Control

MARK PITTAWAY

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pp. 343-367

In concluding remarks to an article on the impact of the introduction of Sovietstyle economic planning on shop floor relations in early socialist Hungary, I wrote that the analysis presented “points to the way in which approaches which stress the dominance of the state in socialist society have misread reality.”1 ...

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18. Deviance, Control, and Democracy: France, 1950-2000

SEBASTIAN ROCHÉ

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pp. 368-394

There has been a dramatic surge in crime and delinquency in the Western countries since 1950. Combined with a change in sensitivity to crime, this has led to the emergence of the question of insecurity as a major political problem on the agenda. ...

Bibliography

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pp. 395-440

Index

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pp. 441-446

Other Titles in the Series

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