Cover

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Series Page, Title Page, Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

This volume results from a project for which Herman Diederiks took the initiative shortly before his death. In the course of that project, the contributions were discussed in three successive meetings: in Menaggio, Italy (1997), Amsterdam (1998), and Berlin (1999). ...

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Social Control and History: An Introduction

PIETER SPIERENBURG

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pp. 1-22

What is social control? If anything, it is a classic concept, which many scholars use as a matter of course. Few, however, care about providing an explicit statement of what they understand it to be. This book, like its companion volume on the modern period, scrutinizes this classic notion. ...

Part One: Institutional Perspectives: State, Church, and the People

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pp. 23-24

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1. Discipline: The State and the Churches in Early Modern Europe

HEINZ SCHILLING

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pp. 25-36

We can summarize the results of the decades of debate on Gerhard Oestreich’s concept1 of a “fundamental process” of social disciplining in early modern times primarily controlled by the state—and it is a debate that has most recently taken place on an international level—by citing the formula expressed by Fernand Braudel back in 1959 in opposition to Otto Brunner, ...

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2. Social Control in Early Modern England: The Need for a Broad Perspective

JAMES A. SHARPE

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pp. 37-54

It is therefore not surprising that Cohen should comment “all this creates some terrible muddles.”1 Yet the various contributions gathered here in this volume are dedicated to discussing historical aspects of this “Mickey Mouse concept” and, it is to be hoped, creating some sort of cosmos from the chaos of the “terrible confusion.” ...

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3. Punishment versus Reconciliation: Marriage Control in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Holland

MANON VAN DER HEIJDEN

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pp. 55-77

Recently, Martin Ingram argued that, in order to understand various forms of early modern social discipline, historians should compare a range of secular and ecclesiastical jurisdictions over a long period of time.1 Focusing on Holland during the early modern period, this article attempts to accomplish exactly what Ingram advocated. ...

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4. Ordering Discourse and Society: Moral Politics, Marriage, and Fornication during the Reformation and the Confessionalization Process in Germany and Switzerland

SUSANNA BURGHARTZ

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pp. 78-98

In 1540 the Zürich Reformer and successor to Zwingli, Heinrich Bullinger, complained vehemently of the “grave sins and shameless vices that have alas multiplied greatly and grown rampant among many in this recent and most perilous time.” ...

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5. Church Discipline in a Biconfessional Country: Ireland in a European Context

UTE LOTZ-HEUMANN

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pp. 99-112

In recent German-speaking historiography, one of the major controversies regarding the early modern period has been concerned with the validity of such macrohistorical concepts as “social disciplining” by Gerhard Oestreich, “the process of civilization” by Norbert Elias, “discipline and power” by Michel Foucault, “acculturation” by Robert Muchembled, ...

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6. Early Modern Discipline and the Visual Arts

MICHAEL SCHOLZ-HÄNSEL

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pp. 113-131

Until now, there have been no systematic studies investigating the visual arts of the early modern period from the macroperspective of disciplining, a perspective now largely established in general history.1 This essay, therefore, has an exploratory character. ...

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7. Early Modern Architecture: Conditioning, Disciplining, and Social Control

BERND ROECK

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pp. 132-142

The interrelationships between art and discipline constitute a vast subject matter for research, most of it still awaiting investigation. Yet, its significance is clear: paintings and sculptures, for example, inform and enlighten us; they mediate imaginations and indirectly convey “appropriate” patterns of behavior. ...

Part Two: Communities: Perspectives From Below

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pp. 143-144

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8. Social Control Viewed from Below: New Perspectives

HERMAN ROODENBURG

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pp. 145-158

Who actually controlled the law in early modern Europe? Was the law merely an instrument in the hands of state, church, or ruling class? Was it all or primarily a matter of control to bottom? Or were the middle and lower classes involved as well? And did the state evolve at the expense of society or was it perhaps the other way round? ...

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9. The Uses of Justice As a Form of Social Control in Early Modern Europe

MARTIN DINGES

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pp. 159-175

As many studies of the history of criminal justice in early modern Europe testify, the number of indictments dropped before a final verdict was reached was surprisingly high.1 They far surpassed the number of procedures resulting in formal convictions. Apparently, there was a great discrepancy between the number of accusations taken as cases into court and those actually tried. ...

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10. Moral Order in the World of Work: Social Control and the Guilds in Europe

MAARTEN PRAK

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pp. 176-199

In urban communities guilds exercised a wide ranging, if incomplete, social control during the early modern period. This social control encompassed both members and nonmembers and mainly touched on their economic lives but was also extended to such social issues as marriage and burial and the gendered division of labor, ...

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11. Behavioral Regulation in the City: Families, Religious Associations, and the Role of Poor Relief

KATHERINE LYNCH

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pp. 200-219

In this essay, I explore the history of social control in western Europe as it related to the urban household and family. I argue that households and families of the lower and middling ranks of urban society were weakened by the impact of high urban mortality and levels of migration, making the formation of bonds of mutual assistance and control beyond the household particularly vital to the survival of individuals and their families. ...

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12. Social Control of Violence, Violence as Social Control: The Case of Early Modern Germany

GERD SCHWERHOFF

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pp. 220-246

The problem of the containment, control, and suppression of violence is inextricably linked with that of its nature. Scholars of present-day violence, as well as historians concerned with the topic, sometimes fail to see this central connection or to discuss it appropriately. ...

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13. The Making of Popular Cultures of Social Control: A Comparison of Essex (England) and Hesse-Cassel (Germany) during the Reformation

ROBERT VON FRIEDEBURG

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pp. 247-266

In 1659, in the Hessian village of Merzhausen, Ziegenhain district, local peasants and day laborers, led by the local squire, stormed the parsonage and burned down the house of the minister to arrest a rioter he had hidden there. Merzhausen was part of the principality of Hesse-Cassel, the major Protestant, and from 1605 Calvinist, power in central Germany.1 ...

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14. Social Control from Below: Popular Arbitration of Disputes in Old Regime Spain

TOMÁS A. MANTECÓN

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pp. 267-287

Social control is a multifaceted concept. As an apparently neutral term, it covers all social processes that induce conformity, from infant socialization down to public execution. Roughly speaking, social control requires that a deviant form of behavior is transformed into tolerable conduct. ...

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15. Charivari and Shame Punishments: Folk Justice and State Justice in Early Modern England

MARTIN INGRAM

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pp. 288-308

While historians of social control in early modern Europe have naturally devoted much attention to punishment, the coverage has been uneven. There has been a great deal of emphasis on the death penalty (in all its forms and manifestations from hanging to breaking on the wheel), and on the search for alternatives to capital punishment, such as transportation, from the seventeenth century onward. ...

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16. Social Control and the Neighborhood in European Cities

CARL A. HOFFMANN

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pp. 309-328

In May 1600 the Augsburg council imprisoned the weaver1 Marx Gropp for adultery and poor housekeeping (Übelhausen). During the trial, people from Gropp’s neighborhood, including the neighborhood captain (Gassenhauptmann), and members of his guild presented a supplication in his favor. ...

Bibliography

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pp. 329-378

Index

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pp. 379-382

Other Titles in the Series

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