Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Figures

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pp. vii-viii

List of Tables

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

This book brings together two halves of my life—the academic who is interested in puzzles about American politics and the person who has worked in the policy world in Washington, D.C. In fact, this book comes directly from a decision I made in February 1996 to leave the Ph.D. program at the University of Georgia ...

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Chapter 1. Policy Periodicity

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pp. 1-9

Lawmaking is typically seen through the lens of pressure politics, partisan politics, and contingencies. Policies pass or fail because of interest groups’ activities, manipulations by political parties, or because legislators are playing catch-up in the aftermath of a traumatic event, such as September 11th. ...

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Chapter 2. How Short-Term Authorizations Work

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pp. 10-20

This example illustrates three general features of authorization legislation in the post–World War II era. First, there is a substantive component that establishes a program and structures its operations so that the program will be implemented in the manner that the committee desires (Oleszek 1989; Schick 1995; Tiefer 1989). ...

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Chapter 3. Controlling Policy Change

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pp. 21-36

For many programs, a short-term authorization is the mechanism for determining when explicit legislative action will take place and a bill will be enacted—that is, when policy change will occur. In this chapter I develop a conceptualization of short-term authorizations as a mechanism for controlling when legislative activity will occur in Congress. ...

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Chapter 4. Signalling to Appropriators: Who's Listening?

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pp. 37-54

Senator Hatfield’s sentiments reflect the dynamics of the appropriations process, as understood by an appropriator. The books that comprise the U.S. Code are filled with programs that Congress has created. The question is, what programs will get how much money? ...

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Chapter 5. Oversight and Short-Term Authorizations

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pp. 55-71

When members of Congress create new programs, they want to control how the program is implemented. Congress generally does this through ex post or ex ante controls over agency behavior. Ex ante controls attempt to limit or to influence agency choices prior to a final action being taken. ...

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Chapter 6. Steering Agencies with Reauthorizations

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pp. 72-85

Congress plays a key role in shaping federal agencies and the policies that they implement. Congress creates agencies through the legislative process, funds their operations through the appropriations process, structures the policies Congress will implement, and determines the actors with whom congressional members will work. ...

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Chapter 7. Policy Control and Short-Term Authorizations

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pp. 86-99

If short-term authorizations are an important mechanism for agenda and policy control for authorizing committees, then their use should drive when legislative changes do and do not occur. The conceptualization outlined in chapter 3 stated that this mechanism would place a particular policy on the legislative agenda at a specific time for possible modification, legislation would be passed, ...

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Chapter 8. The New Policy Environment

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pp. 100-109

In the previous chapters, the use of short-term authorizations as a control mechanism has been explored in depth. However, the utility of this mechanism in some policy areas is diminishing because certain committees are having a more and more difficult time successfully crafting reauthorization legislation. ...

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Chapter 9. Conclusion

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pp. 110-118

Short-term authorizations have had a dramatic impact on the policy environment since their initial use after World War II. The original success of using short-term authorizations to control the policy implementation of the Marshall Plan showed that this new tool could be an effective mechanism for giving Congress greater control over how a policy was implemented. ...

Methodological Appendix

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pp. 119-126

Notes

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pp. 127-130

References

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pp. 131-140

Index of Names

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pp. 141-144

Index of Subjects

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pp. 145-148

Series Page

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