Cover

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Table of Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

This book has been a journey that began in graduate school at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 1993 and culminated with the end of the Clinton administration. While this book was being researched and written, many people provided comments or critiques or were simply supportive of my efforts. Many former colleagues and professors from ...

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Introduction

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pp. ix-xv

The question of who has authority to deploy American troops and use military force abroad is one of the most profound and important constitutional issues raised since the republic’s founding. In the aftermath of the terrorist strikes on the United States on September 11, 2001, this issue surfaced again on the American political agenda. American for- ...

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1. War Powers in American History

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pp. 1-20

Since the republic’s founding, American presidents have engaged in over three hundred different uses of force abroad. During the same time, Congress passed only five declarations of war. To the casual observer, it may seem that as commander in chief, the president is entitled to unilateral military powers and acts in a perfectly constitutional man- ...

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2. Somalia

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pp. 21-42

Somalia represented President Clinton’s first real foreign policy challenge and crisis. By October 1993, the mission was a deep embarrassment for the United States, as American lives were lost in this peacekeeping and later “nation building” operation. When the troops were originally deployed, President George Bush had gained the support of ...

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3. Haiti

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pp. 43-67

The United States’ military deployment to Haiti represents another occasion when U.S. armed forces were used abroad by the Clinton administration. As was the case in Somalia, American participation in this peacekeeping operation was approved by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter 7 authorization and entailed the use of Ameri- ...

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4. Bosnia

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pp. 68-98

The United States military action in Bosnia was the third major deployment of American armed forces under President Bill Clinton. Like the operations in Somalia and Haiti, this U.S. deployment involved a peace-enforcement operation authorized by the United Nations Security Council and Chapter 7 of the UN Charter. However, this case is consider- ...

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5. Terrorism

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pp. 99-116

Bill Clinton’s strikes on Usama Bin Laden represented a very different sort of military action than the other uses of force considered thus far. The president had multilateral support from either the United Nations or NATO prior to the use of force in Somalia, Haiti, and Bosnia. The responsibilities of the president and Congress in carrying out the “con- ...

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6. Kosovo

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pp. 117-137

The political climate surrounding the United States’ use of force in Kosovo in 1999 was substantially different than what the Clinton administration had dealt with in its past military actions. First, the United States’ and NATO’s military operation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the most prolonged and intense use of force during the ...

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7. Iraq

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pp. 138-159

An ongoing security concern during President Clinton’s two terms in office was Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. Clinton inherited a strategic challenge in Iraq that in many respects plagued his administration for eight years. For various reasons, the United States used military force against Hussein in 1993, 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2000. In his many strikes ...

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8. The Politics and Future of War Powers

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pp. 160-174

In the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War and as George Bush spoke of a “new world order,” the prospects for international peace and security seemed considerably better for the post–cold war world. Yet through the eight years of the Clinton presidency, ethnic conflicts, civil wars, and even incidents of genocide continued in disturbingly high...

Appendix

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pp. 175-182

Notes

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pp. 183-218

Index

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pp. 219-224