Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Table of Contents

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pp. iii-iv

List of Illustrations

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

Thanks are owed to those who gave me assistance or support in ways that facilitated the making of this book. My history mentors at The College of Wooster and The Ohio State University grounded me in the study of history. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

The examination of the Ohio color line presented in this book is a reflection of the renewed scholarly interest in the study of the African American past as seen from within statewide perimeters. Black historical themes in states are the foci of a spate of books and doctoral dissertations produced since the beginning of the 1990s. ...

Part One: Black Migrants and Wartimes, 1915-1920

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pp. 7-8

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Chapter 1. The Great Migration and Its Impact

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pp. 9-32

World War I and wartime black migration were the most powerful events affecting the African American experience in Ohio during 1915–1920. The war set the context for an unparalleled black immigration to northern cities that changed black demographic characteristics in Ohio. ...

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Chapter 2. The Color Line's Changing Dimensions

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pp. 33-49

The Great Migration of African Americans and the magnification of the Ohio color line occurred in parallel. Racial segregation and racial discrimination intensified in Ohio during and immediately after World War I. Residential segregation of African Americans in Ohio cities increased significantly. ...

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Chapter 3. New Organizations and Urban Issues

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pp. 50-86

Social work institutions and civil rights organizations were established during and after World War I to deal with welfare concerns and civil rights issues that multiplied in Ohio cities during the wartime black migration. White hostility increased and acts of intolerance spread while the scale and complexity of the migrants’ needs grew in those years. ...

Part Two: The Twenties and Culminating Trends

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pp. 87-88

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Chapter 4. Rising "Black Metropolises"

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pp. 89-109

The urbanization of Ohio’s black population reached a new level in the 1920s. This was the consequence of the black migration to Ohio cities that began slowly in the nineteenth century, gained momentum after 1890, accelerated sharply during World War I, and persisted at a high rate in the 1920s. ...

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Chapter 5. Increasing White Tolerance

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pp. 110-141

White intolerance in the United States reached a post–Civil War peak and the Ohio color line became more unyielding and restrictive in the 1920s. After increasing for decades, intolerance reached a benchmark high across the nation at mid-decade. ...

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Chapter 6. New Leadership and Welfare Work

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pp. 142-158

Black Ohioans in the 1920s persisted in the effort to assist African American newcomers, who were exposed to poverty, substandard housing conditions, and other kinds of social problems that were characteristic of life in the neighborhoods of older urban districts, before as well as after African Americans settled in them. ...

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Chapter 7. New Leadership and Equal Rights Struggles

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pp. 159-194

The 1920s presented the greatest challenge to the African American equal rights struggle in Ohio since the nineteenth century. Racial discrimination and segregation reached new levels as the floodwaters of white intolerance crested during the twenties, after rising for decades. ...

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Chapter 8. Toward Black Political Independence

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pp. 195-214

During the 1920s partisan politics remained an important arena of the African American struggle against the color line in Ohio. Politics and elections still determined whether office holders were more or less sympathetic to the principle of equality before the law regardless of color. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 215-231

This book discusses the changing experiences of Ohio’s black urban communities during 1915–1930, but it is mainly about the color line. Such studies focusing on the past’s color lines surely can contribute to understanding of the black experience, but historians must produce additional works that focus on life within Ohio’s black communities, rather than on black-white relations; ...

Appendix

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pp. 232-234

Notes

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pp. 235-278

Bibliography

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pp. 279-292

Index

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pp. 293-312