Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page, Dedication

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pp. iii-v

Table of Contents

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pp. vii-vii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

I would like to express my deepest appreciation to Russell Dalton, who provided incredibly helpful advice from the planning to data analyses stages and beyond. His insights have been invaluable. Katherine Tate provided both substantive and professional advice, which is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank Martin Wattenberg and Bernard Grofman for their thoughtful ...

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1. Women, Parties, and Political Power

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pp. 1-17

In May 2000 British Prime Minister Tony Blair and his wife Cherie welcomed a newborn son to their family. Just before the baby’s birth, Cherie Blair praised then Finnish Prime Minister, Paavo Lipponen, for a taking a week of paternity leave to care for his baby, and she called for the “widespread adoption of his fine example” (Hoge, 2000). Yet in his public response, Prime ...

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2. Opportunity Structures: The Key to Women's Access

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pp. 18-39

After World War II, Western European societies were divided largely along class, religious, and urban and rural lines (Lipset and Rokkan, 1967; Rose and Urwin, 1970). Beginning in the 1970s, these reliable groupings gradually diversified (Dalton et al., 1985; Crewe and Denver, 1985). Citizens became increasingly concerned with new issues such as environmental quality, alternative ...

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3. Change from the Inside Out: Women in Party Leadership

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pp. 40-49

While some segments of the women’s movement have eschewed participation in male-dominated mainstream political institutions, others have viewed political parties as centers of power. Women have been active within the parties of Western Europe for many years, especially since the suffrage movement, and in many instances since the party’s inception. Yet with the heightened emphasis ...

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4. Rule Changes to Increase Women's Parliamentary Presence: The Diffusion of Candidate Gender Quotas

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pp. 50-66

Gender quotas for parliamentary candidates first emerged in 1975 in Norway, where the proportion of women in parliament has traditionally been highest. As parties across Europe looked to the leader, the number of parties adopting quotas rose sharply in the 1980s—diffusing across nations and within party systems. Gender quotas are the most visible way for parties to symbolically ...

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5. Britain: Women, Parties, and the House of Commons

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pp. 67-84

British women won the right to vote in two stages, in 1918 and in 1928, and the right to run for office in 1918. By 1974 women’s voter turnout rates caught up with those of men (Lovenduski and Norris, 1993). Further, evidence from the 1987 British general elections reveals voters do not appear to be biased against women candidates (Studlar et al., 1988). Yet historically, few women ...

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6. Germany: Women, Parties, and the Bundestag

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pp. 85-102

Parties are especially important to women’s parliamentary presence in Germany because among the German Volksparteien, the traditional route to the Bundestag leads directly through the party hierarchy. Diligent duty to the party through a succession of party offices for several years—aptly named by party activists as the Ochsentour, or “working like an ox”—is prerequisite to ...

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7. Finland: Women, Parties, and the Eduskunta

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pp. 103-117

Finland provides an intriguing contrast to the British and German cases. Although the push for women’s parliamentary presence did not make much progress in Germany until the late 1980s, and in Britain until the late 1990s, women saw great gains in the 1960s in Finland—an early leader in Western Europe. Figure 7.1 details the proportion of women in the Finnish Eduskunta ...

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8. Increasing Access to Parliaments: A Model for Change

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pp. 118-128

After examining women’s activism within the party ranks, and formal rule changes in party policies to select candidates, this chapter moves on to examine the end result—women’s parliamentary presence. Systematic comparison across parties and over time illuminates some common characteristics of parties that lead to increases in women’s representation. By using the party as the ...

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9. Conclusions: Implications for Party Theory and Underrepresented Groups

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pp. 129-136

At its core, this book concerns challenges from new contenders for voice within the party and in parliament by focusing on one group—women. Changes in women’s roles have been one of the fundamental social transformations across postindustrial democracies. The surge in women’s participation within parties called attention to women’s political voice and placed ...

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10. Afterword: Women and Parties Navigate in a New Era, 1998-2004

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pp. 137-158

In Western Europe, the period from the 1970s to the 1990s represents a unique era of unprecedented growth in women’s parliamentary presence and in political parties’ adoption of new policies to promote women candidates. Since this wave, characterized by party-centered change, there have been some noteworthy developments. First, many nations have witnessed a stubborn plateau in ...

Appendix A: List of Sources for Party Variables Used in the Study

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pp. 159-160

Appendix B: List of Sources for Survey Data

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pp. 161-162

Notes

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pp. 163-168

References

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pp. 169-182

Index

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pp. 183-190

Other Titles in the Series

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pp. 191-192