Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Illustrations

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pp. ix-ix

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xii

Since 1997 an abiding mission of the Sam Rayburn Series on Rural Life has been to provide new perspectives on the life, culture, and history of East Texas and the surrounding regions. Established at Texas A&M University– Commerce under the auspices of Texas A&M University Press in College Station and named in honor of Samuel Talafierro Rayburn, a Bonham native and longtime Speaker of the United States House of Representatives...

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xvi

In March 1997, I attended my first Texas State Historical Association meeting. It was at this meeting that the idea for this book was conceived. I really did not know anyone at the meeting and no one knew me, except for James M. Smallwood, my good friend and mentor who had suggested that it would be a good idea for me to attend the meeting. In an effort to make...

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Introduction: An Enigma in Nineteenth-Century Texas Politics

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pp. 1-6

On February 1, 1861, a crowd stood outside the state capitol. Most of those gathered around the entrance of the building had arrived too late to make their way inside. However, given the historical significance of what was about to transpire, they were unwilling to retreat to their homes before learning the fate of their state. Inside, delegates of the Secession Convention...

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Chapter 1:The Foundations of a Frontier Politician, 1825–50

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pp. 7-24

James Webb Throckmorton and his family crossed the Red River into Texas in April of 1841. James was sixteen years old at the time, and like most young men his age, he anticipated what life would be like on the rugged Texas frontier. As the Throckmorton family entered Fannin County, James’s mind surely raced with thoughts of bloody encounters with Indian warriors, the thrill of hunting and exploring in virgin woods, the pleasure...

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Chapter 2: Guardian of the Frontier, 1851–57

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pp. 25-44

The 1850s promised to be years of hope and optimism for many Texans. During the previous decade, the United States had annexed the Lone Star Republic, and the state’s citizens were consumed by the spirit of manifest destiny that was pervasive among most southern Anglos. In 1848, shortly after the United States annexed Texas, miners found gold in California, further expediting America’s push westward. For American expansionists...

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Chapter 3: The Storm of Passion and Sectional Hatred, 1857–61

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pp. 45-72

Between 1857 and 1861 James Throckmorton continued to protect the interests of the small farmers in North Texas by focusing his attention on railroad development and frontier defense. He found it increasingly difficult, however, to concentrate his efforts on these political objectives because sectional debates about slavery began to force Texas politics in new directions. All U.S. citizens realized that the period of calm that followed the...

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Chapter 4: The Civil War “He That is Not for Us is Against Us,” 1861–65

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pp. 73-97

Senator Throckmorton along with other North Texas Unionists worked diligently to keep Texas in the Union and thereby prevent the planter class from gaining political control of the state, but their efforts ultimately failed. Thus, people living on the frontier had to come to terms with the fact that their worst fears had become a reality. Their hopes of creating a society isolated from the control of the planter class had vanished and they...

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Chapter 5: Tainted Blood: Early Reconstruction in Texas, 1865–66

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pp. 98-118

The end of the Civil War brought drastic changes to the people of Texas as they faced the challenges of reestablishing their state as a viable part of the Union. One of the most difficult issues for white Texans, especially ex- Confederates, was accepting the results of the war. The federal government was now in charge of setting the standards for reconstructing their state. To make matters worse, Pres. Andrew Johnson and Radical Republicans...

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Chapter 6: “Every Exertion within My Reach” Challenging Presidential Reconstruction in Texas, 1866

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pp. 119-136

Throckmorton’s governorship was characterized by three key issues: frontier defense, his belief that civil authority triumphed over military rule, and the governor’s removal from office. The North Texan’s attempt to preserve white supremacy was the basis for the position he took in each of these issues. Regarding the defense of the frontier, the governor wanted to remove the Indians from the state’s western lands, making that part of...

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Chapter 7: An Impediment to Reconstruction, 1867

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pp. 137-156

As the confrontation between the civil and military authorities unfolded, the legislature was in session and was debating laws designed to restrict the rights of Texas freedmen. Concerned about the controversies between the military and civil authorities and worried that Congress might establish complete military rule over the state, former Confederate cabinet member...

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Chapter 8: Fueling the Fires of Redemption: The Struggle to Bring Down Radical rule in Texas, 1867–73

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pp. 157-177

Once removed from office, Throckmorton returned home and resumed his law practice. However, the ex- governor soon found himself drawn back into the political arena. Believing that Sheridan with the aid of Radical Republicans in Congress unjustly removed him from office, the North Texas politician began to seek ways to oust the Radicals from state and local offices...

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Chapter 9:The End of the Line: Failed Restorations and Congressional Mediocrity in the Post-reconstruction Era, 1873–94

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pp. 178-196

At first glance, James Webb Throckmorton appears to be something of an enigma in nineteenth- century Texas political history. Between 1861 and 1867, his political positions seemed contradictory, self- serving, and irrational. In part, this assessment holds some validity. Like most politicians of his times, Throckmorton pursued policies that benefited him personally, especially the development of railroads in North Texas. However, a detailed...

Notes

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pp. 197-229

Bibliography

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pp. 231-240

Index

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pp. 241-251