Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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List of Maps

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pp. ix-x

Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

Note to the Reader

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pp. xiii-xiv

Abbreviations

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pp. xv-xviii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-18

Over the course of the long nineteenth century the Russian empire confronted one of the most powerful legacies of the French Revolution: modern nationalism. The Revolution had given birth to the ideal of the civic nation, proclaiming popular sovereignty the universal basis of state power. Exported across Europe in the course of the Napoleonic wars, national ideas galvanized and divided...

Part One | The Little Russian Idea and the Russian Empire

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1. The Little Russian Idea and the Invention of a Rus′ Nation

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pp. 21-57

From the beginning of their recorded history, the fertile lands surrounding the Dnieper River played host to a diverse array of peoples speaking different languages and professing different faiths. For most of the early modern and modern periods, the region found itself on the periphery of two sprawling multiethnic states...

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2. The Little Russian Idea in the 1860s

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pp. 58-86

In the early 1860s, imperial bureaucrats faced their most daunting challenge yet in the western borderlands. By late 1861, it had become clear that the szlachta across the region was conspiring to launch a new assault on the imperial state. In the southwest, Polish Catholic nobles organized open demonstrations in district cities and rural areas; police confiscated countless French, Polish, and Ukrainian-language...

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3. The Little Russian Idea and the Imagination of Russian and Ukrainian Nations

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pp. 87-114

In the 1870s, developments on both sides of the Russo-Austrian border created new challenges for the Little Russian lobby. Over the course of that decade, a radical populist movement emerged in Russia, which saw educated youth fan out across the countryside to acquaint themselves with the needs and desires of peasant communities. Unlike the Little Russian activists who conducted agitation in rural...

Part Two | The Urban Crucible

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4. Nationalizing Urban Politics

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pp. 117-149

While Little Russian activists portrayed the southwestern borderlands as the spiritual center of an Orthodox, East Slavic nation, social, political, and economic processes unrelated to the de-polonization campaign were transforming everyday life in the region. Th e 1860s marked the beginning of several decades of rapid urban...

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5. Concepts of Liberation

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pp. 150-178

In the first years of the twentieth century, contacts between Russia’s progressive nobles, zemstvo activists, socialists, and urban liberals continued to deepen. As diverse groups of imperial subjects joined together to demand political reform and the creation of a rule-of-law state that would off er all citizens equal rights, observers came to speak of them as constituting a unitary Liberation...

Part Three | Forging a Russian Nation

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6. Electoral Politics and Regional Governance

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pp. 181-210

The political system that emerged from 1905 permitted the ideological conflicts that had polarized Kiev residents during the revolutionary upheaval to harden into sharp partisan divides. Liberationists and their “truly Russian” opponents continued to debate each other on university campuses, on shop floors, and in city streets, but they also enjoyed a new venue in which to compete: multiparty electoral...

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7. Nationalizing the Empire

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pp. 211-243

In June 1907, Prime Minister P. A. Stolypin dissolved the second Duma on the pretext that its Social Democratic deputies had participated in illegal agitation. Shortly thereafter, he announced alterations to electoral laws, which would be implemented in time for the fall 1907 election of a third imperial Duma. The new laws reduced the...

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8. The Limits of the Russian Nationalist Vision

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pp. 244-273

In March 1911, less than a week aft er Stolypin instituted the western zemstva under Article 87, children playing in Kiev’s Luk′ianovka district—the neighborhood where the “truly Russian” movement had secured its earliest mass following in the 1905 period—made a horrifying discovery. In a cave on the property of a brick factory...

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Epilogue

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pp. 274-284

Within months of the collapse of the Russian nationalist coalition in the southwestern borderlands, Russia plunged into World War I, and Russian troops marched west to engage German and Habsburg forces. In the first weeks of the war, the opposing camps that had emerged from the Russian nationalist lobby were swept, like the rest of Russian society, by patriotic fervor. Despite his criticism of the government...

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 285-314

Index

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pp. 315-330