Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. ix-x

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Foreword

Renato Rosaldo

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p. xi

In his fine synthetic work, Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity, Nestor Garcia Canclini explores the tensions, verging on contradictions, between modernization and democratization in Latin American nation-states. These states regard themselves as caught between traditions that have not yet gone and a modernity that has not yet arrived. From its hybrid position between tradition...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xxi

This attempt to put into practice intercultural and interdisciplinary studies needed to be nourished in several countries and by working with specialists in a variety of fields. The most constant stimulus was the relationship with graduate students and professors at the National School of Anthropology and History (NSAH) in Mexico, above all those with whom I led the Workshop on Culture and Ideology: Esteban...

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Entrance

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pp. 1-11

What are the strategies for entering and leaving modernity in the nineties? We phrase the question in this way because in Latin America, where traditions have not yet disappeared and modernity has not completely arrived, we doubt that the primary objective should be to modernize us, as politicians, economists, and the publicity of new technologies proclaim. Other sectors, upon verifying that salaries are returning to the power that they had two decades ago and the...

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1 From Utopias to the Market

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pp. 12-40

What does it mean to be modern? It is possible to condense the current interpretations by saying that four basic movements constitute modernity: an emancipating project, an expansive project, a renovating project, and a democratizing project. By the emancipating project we understand the secularization of cultural fields, the self-expressive and self-regulated production of symbolic practices, and their development in autonomous...

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2 Latin American Contradictions: Modernism without Modernization?

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pp. 41-65

The most-reiterated hypothesis in the literature on Latin American modernity may be summarized as follows: we have had an exuberant modernism with a deficient modernization. We have already seen this position in the citations from Paz and Cabrujas. It also circulates in other essays and in historical and sociological studies. Given the fact that we were colonized by the most backward European nations...

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3 Artists, Middlemen, and the Public: To Innovate or to Democratize?

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pp. 66-106

It is not easy to examine the reorientation of the main actors in the face of changes in the symbolic markets. In Latin America there are few empirical studies designed to find out how artists seek out their audience and clients, how middlemen operate, and how audiences respond. It is also difficult too because the discourses by which some judge the transformations of modernity do not always coincide with the...

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4 The Future of the Past

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pp. 107-144

The modern world is not made only by those who have modernizing projects. When scientists, technologists, and entrepreneurs search for clients they also have to take into account what resists modernity. Not only in the interest of expanding the market, but also in order to legitimize their hegemony, the modernizers need to persuade their addressees that—at the same time that they are renewing...

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5 The Staging of the Popular

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pp. 145-183

In this history the popular is the excluded: those who have no patrimony or who do not succeed in being acknowledged and conserved; artisans who do not become artists, who do not become individuals or participate in the market for "legitimate" symbolic goods; spectators of the mass media who remain outside the universities and museums, "incapable" of reading and looking at high culture..

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6 The Popular and Popularity: From Political to Theatrical Representation

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pp. 184-205

While the staging of local cultures by the folklorists was convincing, it was thought that the mass communications media were the great threat to popular traditions. In reality, the process of homogenization of the indigenous cultures of America began long before radio and television: in the ethnocidal operations of the conquest and colonization, in the violent Christianization of groups with diverse...

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7 Hybrid Cultures, Oblique Powers

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pp. 206-263

The two preceding chapters seem unbalanced. In arguing against the excessive weight of the traditional in the study of popular cultures, most of the pages went toward demonstrating what there is not of the traditional, authentic, and self-generated in the popular groups. I gave little space to urban popular cultures, to the changes unleashed by migration, to the atypical symbolic processes...

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Exit

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pp. 264-282

I did not want to leave my conclusions for the end and therefore maintained a constant interaction between the theoretical and the empirical. In part, the conclusions were presented in every chapter. But although I attempted to sketch a general movement, the crisis of the notion of totality and the unequal empirical implementation of the changes described in the Latin American countries,...

Bibliography

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pp. 283-290

Index

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pp. 291-295