Cover

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Title Page, copyright

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CONTENTS

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pp. vii-viii

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PREFACE

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pp. ix-x

Throughout the border lakes, in the days of the voyageurs, certain trees were singled out as "lob trees." Each grew on a prominent point or island, standing out from the distance and serving as a landmark to all who passed. Each was named in honor of a wellknown explorer, fur company official, or voyageur who had performed a brave or noteworthy act. A nimble member of the crew clambered up the...

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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p. xi

Many people have guided us to our lob trees, and without their help this book could not have materialized. They are not responsible for its shortcomings, however. First of all, we are deeply grateful to F. B. Hubachek, Sr., for his support, encouragement, and inspiration in the cause of restorative wilderness research. We especially thank the Trustees and Program Committee of the Wilderness Research...

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CHAPTER 1. Red Pine Lob Tree: Introduction

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pp. 3-20

"Now this is really wilderness!" exclaimed the journalist as he stood beneath our lob tree red pine (fig. 1.1). One does sense an atmosphere of solitude and peace when standing beside it. Could this atmosphere be the essence of wilderness? It apparently was for the two California-based conservationists who stood with us that summer evening. One was a president's son, the other a well-known journalist; they had come...

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CHAPTER 2. Sacred Juniper Lob Tree: Flora

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pp. 21-38

To visit our sacred juniper ring, we would have to go back in time at least twenty years and beach our canoe at the northeast end of Washington Island in Basswood Lake. A high, pine-covered point guards the entrance to a wind-sheltered waterway between the island and the mainland. The shaded, soft forest floor beneath the pines is bare except for a...

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CHAPTER 3. Jack Pine Lob Tree: Forest Fire

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pp. 39-64

To reach our jack pine lob tree, one must clamber up a rocky ridge overlooking a small lake. The climb is worth the effort; a vista of the surrounding lakes and forest is spread before the rugged outcrop. The hot sun bakes this exposed site on a summer day, and our lob tree offers only sparse shade (fig. 3.1). It is a small tree, no more than thirty feet tall,...

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CHAPTER 4. Big Cedar Lob Tree: Presettlement Forests

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pp. 65-76

The oldest known tree in the border lakes country is not often seen by visitors, although hundreds pass nearby every summer as they paddle from Prairie Portage to Basswood River. This northern white cedar lob tree was already at least six hundred years old when European explorers first passed the sandy bay near which it grows. The tree's exact...

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CHAPTER 5. Paper Birch Lob Tree: Early Inhabitants

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pp. 77-92

Our paper birch lob tree stands among other birches on a gentle slope just above the shoreline (fig. 5.1). Throughout the open, sunny grove, most birches stand in clusters of two to six trees that are joined at the ground line or standing close together. The trees in each clump originated as sprouts from the base of an older tree, now long gone. Punky remains of parent stumps can still be detected at the bases of younger birch clusters. The many birch clumps covering the slope indicate...

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CHAPTER 6. White Pine Lob Tree: Pine Logging

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pp. 93-126

Our white spruce lob tree stands out as a landmark on the lakeshore (fig. 7.1). Its graceful branches curve gently upward at their tips and are covered with short, sharp needles. The crown tapers skyward, but the tip is fuller than the spiked tips of the smaller balsam fir nearby. A few dry, amber balls of pitch have formed on its trunk. Only hardy souls with strong teeth still chew this spruce gum, usually just to prove they can, but it is nature's multipurpose glue, valued by Ojibway in the...

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CHAPTER 7. White Spruce Lob Tree: Pulpwood Logging

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pp. 127-144

Our white spruce lob tree stands out as a landmark on the lakeshore(fig. 7.1). Its graceful branches curve gently upward at their tips andare covered with short, sharp needles. The crown tapers skyward, butthe tip is fuller than the spiked tips of the smaller balsam fir near-by. A few dry, amber balls of pitch have formed on its trunk. Only...

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CHAPTER 8. Balsam Fir Lob Tree: Recreation and Preservation

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pp. 145-170

In the early morning stillness, the sharp spike of our balsam fir lob tree is reflected in the mirror-smooth surface of the lake (fig. 8.1). Its spiked crown is part of the jagged forest profile so characteristic of the border lakes country, and it contributes to the northern or boreal atmosphere that brings visitors back again and again. Balsam fir, standing thus as...

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CHAPTER 9. Aspen Lob Tree: Conclusions

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pp. 171-194

It is just a little thing, our aspen lob tree—inconspicuous, thin, spindly, and only between six and seven feet tall. It is indistinguishable from the thousands of others around it on this recently disturbed site (fig. 9.1). Although it is small, our lob tree and the surrounding members of its clone have achieved their present height in less than four years, making them the most rapidly growing trees in the forest. The...

APPENDIX: Common and Scientific Names of Plants

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pp. 195-200

NOTES

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pp. 201-210

INDEX

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pp. 211-220