Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. vii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xi

Architectural historian Joseph Siry suggested I write my undergraduate honors thesis at Wesleyan University on H. H. Richardson’s Buffalo State Hospital for the Insane. An unusually dedicated thesis supervisor, he learned that I had been raised in Rochester, New York, near Buffalo, and that I was interested in social history and science...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-16

In 1853, Dr. Horace Buttolph, the superintendent of a respected lunatic asylum, proudly described the institution he managed as “reposing in the midst of the most beautiful scenery in the valley of the Delaware, combining all the influences which human art and skill can command to bless, soothe, and restore the wandering intellects that are gathered in its bosom. The state may proudly point to this asylum, as a noble illustration of that charity...

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1. Transforming the Treatment: ARCHITECTURE AND MORAL MANAGEMENT

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pp. 17-50

Americans began building lunatic asylums in the eighteenth century, in the wake of reform movements and compelled by a sense of civic and religious duty. They built asylums with increasing speed as the nineteenth century progressed, and soon, in the 1840s, the United States developed its own plan for hospitals for the insane. Nineteenth-century doctors typically placed their benevolent...

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2. Establishing the Type: THE DEVELOPMENT OF KIRKBRIDE PLAN HOSPITALS AND HOPE FOR AN ARCHITECTURAL CURE

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pp. 51-78

The idea that “cheerful landscapes and handsome architecture” profoundly affected patients was at its height during the 1840s and 1850s. Before those decades, American doctors had no set plan, no rules to follow, when they embarked on the raising of a new asylum. But in the middle of the nineteenth century, new construction became codified...

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3. Breaking Down: THE COTTAGE PLAN FOR ASYLUMS

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pp. 79-104

Frederick Law Olmsted received a letter from family friend and influential asylum doctor John S. Butler on the occasion of the doctor’s retirement from the Hartford Retreat for the Insane, a private hospital outside Hartford, Connecticut. Butler remembered fondly that he and Olmsted had conspired to temper the institutional character of mental hospitals by introducing smaller buildings and...

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4. Building Up: HOSPITALS FOR THE INSANE AFTER THE CIVIL WAR

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pp. 105-144

After the Civil War, keeping pace with architectural taste in America, linear and cottage plan asylums became more adventurous, colorful, ornamented, and varied in silhouette.More significant, asylums ballooned in size (see Appendix D). Superintendents agreed to expand their institutions, because earlier hospitals, including the model hospitals...

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Conclusion: THE CHANGING SPACES OF MENTAL ILLNESS

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pp. 145-160

Today, mental illness is generally considered to be treatable, but it cannot be prevented or cured.Many patients recover, but their path is not an easy one. There is no vaccine for mental illness, such as that which has led to the eradication of smallpox, nor is there a drug that purges mental illness from the body, in the way that a course of penicillin can conquer a staphylococcus infection. No...

APPENDIX A. NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY

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pp. 161-162

APPENDIX B. OCCUPATIONS OF PATIENTS IN 1850

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pp. 163-164

APPENDIX C. COST OF LUNATIC ASYLUMS IN 1877

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pp. 165-165

APPENDIX D. COMPARATIVE SIZES OF ASYLUMS, 1770–1872

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pp. 166-168

Notes

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pp. 169-178

Bibliography

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pp. 179-186

Index

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pp. 187-193