In this Book

Diplomacy in Black and White
summary
From 1798 to 1801, during the Haitian Revolution, President John Adams and Toussaint Louverture forged diplomatic relations that empowered white Americans to embrace freedom and independence for people of color in Saint-Domingue. The United States supported the Dominguan revolutionaries with economic assistance and arms and munitions; the conflict was also the U.S. Navy’s first military action on behalf of a foreign ally. This cross-cultural cooperation was of immense and strategic importance as it helped to bring forth a new nation: Haiti.

Diplomacy in Black and White is the first book on the Adams-Louverture alliance. Historian and former diplomat Ronald Angelo Johnson details the aspirations of the Americans and Dominguans—two revolutionary peoples—and how they played significant roles in a hostile Atlantic world. Remarkably, leaders of both governments established multiracial relationships amid environments dominated by slavery and racial hierarchy. And though U.S.-Dominguan diplomacy did not end slavery in the United States, it altered Atlantic world discussions of slavery and race well into the twentieth century.

Diplomacy in Black and White reflects the capacity of leaders from disparate backgrounds to negotiate political and societal constraints to make lives better for the groups they represent. Adams and Louverture brought their peoples to the threshold of a lasting transracial relationship. And their shared history reveals the impact of decisions made by powerful people at pivotal moments. But in the end, a permanent alliance failed to emerge, and instead, the two republics born of revolution took divergent paths.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. pp. 1-1
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
  2. pp. 2-9
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. Contents
  2. pp. ix-x
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. List of Illustrations
  2. pp. xi-xii
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. xiii-xviii
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. INTRODUCTION: The Atlantic World: “An Ocean of Uncertainty”
  2. pp. 1-12
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. ONE: Saint-Dominguan Revolution: “We Can and Must Do Something There”
  2. pp. 13-38
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. TWO: U.S. Involvement: “Even South Carolinians Voted for It”
  2. pp. 39-67
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. THREE: Edward Stevens: “Our Minister to Toussaint”
  2. pp. 68-86
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. FOUR: Dominguan-American Diplomacy: “So Natural”
  2. pp. 87-112
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. FIVE: Allied Command: “Willing to Serve General Toussaint”
  2. pp. 113-136
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. SIX: The United States and Hispaniola: “On a Permanent and Advantageous Footing”
  2. pp. 137-160
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. SEVEN: After Adams and Louverture: “Great Changes Likely to Take Place”
  2. pp. 161-184
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. Notes
  2. pp. 185-208
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 209-232
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. Index
  2. pp. 233-242
  3. restricted access Download |
  1. Further Reading
  2. pp. 262-263
  3. restricted access Download |
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.