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The Archaeology of Carrier Mills

10,000 Years in the Saline Valley of Illinois

Richard W. Jefferies

Publication Year: 2013

Archaeological sites throughout southern Illinois provide a chronicle of the varying ways people have lived in that area during the past 10,000 years. This book focuses on the results of a five-year archaeological investigation in a 143-acre area known as the Carrier Mills Archaeo­logical District. This area, rich in archaeological treasures, offers many keys to the prehistoric people of southern Illinois. Archaeologists in this study have sought to learn the ages of the various prehistoric occupations represented at the sites; to better un­derstand the technology and social organization of these prehistoric people; to collect information about diet, health, and physical characteristics of the prehistoric inhabitants; and to investigate the remains of the 19th-century Lakeview settlement.

Published by: Southern Illinois University Press


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pp. 1-3

Title Page

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pp. 4-4


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pp. 5-5


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pp. v-vi


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pp. vii-x

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pp. xi-xii

The genesis of Peabody's association with Southern Illinois University at Carbondale's Center for Archaeological Investigations took place in 1967 with the Black Mesa Archaeological Project in northeastern Arizona. This was one of our first, and probably most comprehensive, experiences with contract archaeology—studies that were mandated by legislation in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...

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pp. xiii-xiv

Preparation of this book would have been impossible without the interest, dedication, and hard work of many individuals, institutions, and organizations. Much of this effort focused on preparing the two-volume Carrier Mills technical report (Jefferies and Butler 1982) from which much of the information presented in this book was derived. ...

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1. Introduction

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pp. 3-17

The rolling hills, level grasslands, and tree-covered river valleys of Saline County have provided a home for southern Illinoisans for many years. During the nineteenth century, residents included the descendants of Euro- and Afro-Americans who ventured west to homestead and to settle the untamed Illinois wilderness. ...

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2. The Present and Past Environments

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pp. 18-30

Artifacts and other cultural and environmental data from the Carrier Mills sites show that the prehistoric Indians depended on the plants, animals, water, minerals, and other natural resources found in their environment for their survival. They had few of the technological and economic benefits available to us today to modify natural conditions or to find alternate sources for the basic requirements of life. ...

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3. Hunters and Gatherers: 8000-1000 B.C.

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pp. 31-89

Most Illinoisans share a common interest in learning about the Indian societies that lived in this region before European settlement. People want to know when the first Indians came to their area, who they were, and what their culture was like. The life-style of these early residents and the thousands of years that have passed since they first came to Illinois, ...

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4. The Woodland People: 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1000

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pp. 90-127

In many parts of the Midwest and Southeast, the appearance of thick, crudely made clay pots marks the beginning of the Early Woodland period. The earliest dated occurrence of pottery in southern Illinois comes from the Landreth No. I site, located in the Cedar Creek area of Jackson County, Illinois (Figure 4-I). ...

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5. Mississippian Farmsteaders: A.D. 1000-1600

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pp. 128-138

The final 6oo years of midwestern prehistory are known as the Mississippian period. Archaeologists coined the term Mississippian because some of the first sites investigated by archaeologists dating to this period were located along the Mississippi River. Although numerous large Mississippian sites are located in that river valley, many others have been found along the floodplains of other major rivers ...

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6. Lakeview: A Nineteenth Century Black Community

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pp. 139-151

All of the archaeological materials discussed up to this point were left behind by the prehistoric people who spent at least part of their lives at Carrier Mills. In this chapter, we shall explore the activities of newcomers who lived along the South Fork of the Saline River beginning in the early nineteenth century. ...

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7. A Retrospective Look

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pp. 152-156

The landscape of the Carrier Mills Archaeological District looks quite different now than it did on that cold, snowy Christmas Eve of 1977 when Southern Illinois University archaeologists completed test excavations at the Black Earth site. The low ridges where Middle Archaic hunters and gatherers and Mississippian gardeners once lived are now part of the new Peabody Coal Company mine ...


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pp. 157-162


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pp. 163-167

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Author Biography

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pp. 183-183

Richard W. Jefferies is a professor of anthropology at the University of Kentucky. He is the author of Holocene Hunter-Gatherers of the Lower Ohio River Valley: From the Falls to the Confluence.

Back Cover

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pp. 184-184

E-ISBN-13: 9780809333066
E-ISBN-10: 0809333066
Print-ISBN-13: 9780809333059
Print-ISBN-10: 0809333058

Page Count: 182
Illustrations: 96
Publication Year: 2013

Edition: Paperback edition.

OCLC Number: 863673696
MUSE Marc Record: Download for The Archaeology of Carrier Mills

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Subject Headings

  • African Americans -- Illinois -- Carrier Mills Region -- Antiquities.
  • Indians of North America -- Illinois -- Carrier Mills Region -- Antiquities.
  • Carrier Mills Region (Ill.) -- Antiquities.
  • Illinois -- Antiquities.
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