Clearer Skies Over China
Reconciling Air Quality, Climate, and Economic Goals
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: The MIT Press
Title Page, Copyright
Preface and Acknowledgments
The research of this book expands the inquiry into local and global air pollution in China of our 2007 edited volume, Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China, also from MIT Press. That study grew from a mandate in the mid-1990s of the Harvard University Center for the Environment (HUCE) to bring scholars together ...
Part I: Introduction, Review, and Summary
1. Atmospheric Environment in China: Introduction and Research Review
With each passing year, the future of the global environment becomes more affected by policy choices that China is making regarding its economy, use of energy, and atmospheric environment. Other nations further along the development path bear greater historical responsibility for the atmospheric loading of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that drive global climate change: ...
2. Summary: Sulfur Mandates and Carbon Taxes for 2006–2010
China’s decision makers and ordinary citizens face a difficult confluence of problems in economic development, energy use, environmental degradation, and greenhouse gas emissions, as laid out in chapter 1. A key feature of the challenge is the intimate links between fossil fuel use, the impact of air pollution on public health and agriculture, and carbon dioxide emissions. ...
3. Summary: Carbon Taxes for 2013–2020
The Chinese government asserts that its contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) control should be based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” agreed to under the 1992 United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), by which wealthier nations are to take the lead. It recognizes that some level of explicit GHG control is inevitable, ...
Part II: Studies of the Assessment
4. Primary Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plants in China
Coal is the primary energy source for Chinese power generation. As shown in figure 4.1, thermal power has maintained a large share of both electricity output and installed capacity (82% and 76%, respectively, for 2005). For many years, thermal power has been fueled predominantly by coal with very small amounts by oil or gas. ...
5. Primary Air Pollutants and CO2 Emissions from Cement Production in China
China is the largest cement-producing and cement-consuming country in the world today. Cement production in China was 1.39 billion metric tons in 2008 (CMIIT 2009), which accounted for 50% of the world’s production (USGS 2009). Enormous quantities of air pollutants are emitted from cement production, including sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO X), ...
6. An Anthropogenic Emission Inventory of Primary Air Pollutants in China for 2005 and 2010
A regional emission inventory is a fundamental input into air quality modeling. Without accurate emission profiles of all relevant chemical species located in a sufficiently fine spatial distribution it would not be possible to simulate atmospheric concentrations and fluxes accurately—that is, to conduct simulations that can be confirmed by observations and can be used for policy analysis. ...
7. Atmospheric Modeling of Pollutant Concentrations
Pollutant concentrations near the surface of the earth are of central concern in protecting public health, agricultural productivity, and ecosystems. The mapping of surface concentrations from estimates of emissions like those developed in chapter 6 is seldom straightforward, however, as the atmosphere is a highly complex system in terms ...
8. Benefits to Human Health and Agricultural Productivity of Reduced Air Pollution
We have seen in prior chapters how the SO 2 controls of the 11th Five-Year Plan (11th FYP) or a tax of 100 yuan per ton of carbon (27 yuan per ton of CO 2) did reduce or would reduce emissions and concentrations of a variety of both primary and secondary air pollutants. Among the most powerful implications of either of these policies would be their very large effects on public health. ...
9. The Economics of Environmental Policies in China
As described in chapter 1, our overall objective is to develop a methodology for analyzing environmental policies that recognizes the main elements of the complex web of interactions between economic activity, energy use, emissions, air quality, and damages to public health and agriculture. ...
Part III: Appendixes
Appendix A: Economic-Environmental Model of China
Appendix B: The Valuation of Health Damages
Appendix C: New Assumptions and Methods for the 2013–2020 Policy Cases
Page Count: 444
Publication Year: 2013
OCLC Number: 861199744
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