This book is about the Irish District Court which is a key linchpin in the Irish criminal justice system: the District Court is the court in which all persons charged with criminal offences are initially processed and, despite its limited jurisdiction, it accounts for the majority of committals to Irish prisons. The book presents courtroom based research which unveils the largely hidden decisions and processes of the District Court while also providing valuable insights into Irish policing priorities and practices. The numerous extracts of court proceedings which are interspersed throughout this book provide a detailed and nuanced picture of courtroom actors and courtroom practices and ensure readers acquire an in depth understanding of sentencing decisions and practices. The book describes the increased presence of foreign defendants in the District Court and considers how this local court has adapted to deal with global citizens. The account presented illustrates that while penal institutions and practices are fashioned to fit the fabric of local societies, in the current era of movement and flux these institutions and practices are also shaped by exogenous forces such as migration, increased mobility and transnational crime.