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The Rise of American High School Sports and the Search for Control
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summary
Nearly half of all American high school students participate on sports teams. With a total of 7.6 million participants, this makes the high school sports program in America the largest organized sports program in the world. Robert Pruter’s work traces the history of high school sports in America from the student-led athletic clubs of the 1880’s through to the government takeover of athletic associations in the 1930s. In doing so, he provides an exploration of the ways in which the ideals Americans hoped to instill in future generations-hard work, fair play, team building-were challenged by questions of gender, race, and religion. Pruter explains the struggle to control high school sports, first by schools and local government and eventually on the national level. “Interscholastic sports have become so important that they have become a touchstone of conflict over … virtually every social division (in) our society,” Pruter writes. “The values and ethics in our society as a whole are reflected in our schools, and most publicly on the athletic fields and courts.”

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. pp. 1-1
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  1. Front Flap, Title Page, Other Works in the Series, Copyright, Dedication, About the Author
  2. pp. 2-8
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. vii-viii
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  1. List of Illustrations
  2. pp. ix-x
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  1. Preface
  2. pp. xi-xviii
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. xix-xx
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  1. Part One: Student Initiative and Adult Alliances, 1880–1900
  2. pp. 1-2
  1. 1. Baseball and Football Pioneer High School Sports
  2. pp. 3-21
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  1. 2. The Rise of Schoolboy Track and Tennis
  2. pp. 22-44
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  1. 3. The Physical Education Movement and the Campaign for Control
  2. pp. 45-62
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  1. Part Two: Establishment of Institutional Control, 1900–1920
  2. pp. 63-64
  1. 4. Educators Impose Institutional Control
  2. pp. 65-83
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  1. 5. Student Resistance to Control and Reform
  2. pp. 84-101
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  1. 6. Winter Indoor Sports Fill the Void
  2. pp. 102-125
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  1. 7. New Outdoor Sports Advance the Educational Mission
  2. pp. 126-144
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  1. 8. The New Athletic Girl and Interscholastic Sports
  2. pp. 145-170
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  1. Part Three: Triumph of National Governance, 1920–1930
  2. pp. 171-172
  1. 9. Interscholastics and the Golden Age of Sports
  2. pp. 173-199
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  1. 10. Creation of Military Sports in the Secondary Schools
  2. pp. 200-217
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  1. 11. The Private and Catholic Schools’ Parallel World of Interscholastic Sports
  2. pp. 218-243
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  1. 12. Girls’ Interscholastic Sports and the Exuberance to Compete
  2. pp. 244-272
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  1. 13. The Separate and Unequal World of African American Interscholastic Sports
  2. pp. 273-291
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  1. 14. New National Governance and the Triumph of the State High School Associations
  2. pp. 292-313
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  1. Epilogue
  2. pp. 314-330
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  1. Notes
  2. pp. 331-380
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  1. Selected Bibliography
  2. pp. 381-400
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 401-418
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  1. Back Flap, Back Cover
  2. pp. 441-442
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