Frontmatter

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Title Page

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pp. 3-3

Copyright

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pp. 4-4

Contents

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pp. 5-6

List of Tables and Figures

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pp. vii-x

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Contributors

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pp. xi-xii

...Barbara Wolfe is professor of economics, population health sciences, and public affairs and faculty affiliate at the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin–Madison....

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xx

...In 2001, the Russell Sage Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York began a research program designed to examine the implications of rising economic inequality in the United States. The initial program funded interdisciplinary working groups at a number of universities, representing...

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1. The SES and Health Gradient: A Brief Review of the Literature

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pp. 1-37

...Numerous studies have documented a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health—the better off individuals are, the better their health. The positive relationship between good health and higher SES is generally accepted, but until we understand both the nature of the...

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2. Promise of Biomarkers in Assessing and Predicting Health

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pp. 38-62

...This chapter is designed to provide an overview of biomarkers known to play significant roles in health and well-being. The goal is to supply readers only somewhat familiar with biomarkers with a general roadmap, highlighting major biomarkers that have been the focus of significant research...

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3. Biological Imprints of Social Status: Socioeconomic Gradients in Biological Markers of Disease Risk

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pp. 63-102

...Consistently observed socioeconomic status (SES) gradients in disease and mortality risk have led to a search for biological pathways through which social status gets “under the skin” to affect functioning and health. The premise underlying such efforts is that variations in social status and...

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4. Dissecting Pathways for Socioeconomic Gradients in Childhood Asthma

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pp. 103-125

...The goal of this chapter is to describe a program of research on socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood asthma as a specific, in-depth illustration of an integrated biological and psychosocial approach to establishing the mechanisms underlying SES and health relationships. Beginning with...

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5. Cardiovascular Consequences of Income Change

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pp. 126-157

...Chapter 1 of this book outlines the basic statistical relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. The chapter demonstrates that the link is persistent across various measures of SES and health and for a large number of demographic groups, despite variation in the magnitude of association with different health outcomes...

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6. Cognitive Neuroscience and Disparities in Socioeconomic Status

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pp. 158-186

...The advent and increased use of biomarkers in the study of health disparities across the socioeconomic gradient has provided initial insights into how environmental hardship and stress may affect physiology. Techniques such as cortisol and plasma sampling have provided clues to the...

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7. Brain Development and Poverty: A First Look

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pp. 187-214

...As noted in chapter 1, although the tie between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is well established, the question of how SES influences health remains largely unanswered. Numerous studies focused on children have been based on the assumption that low income causes poor...

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8. Reversing the Impact of Disparities in Socioeconomic Status over the Life Course on Cognitive and Brain Aging

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pp. 215-247

...A large body of work, including that reported in chapter 5, has proven education to be an important predictor of individual differences in cognitive aging and risk for dementia, with fewer years of education and lower quality being associated with poorer cognition in later life...

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9. Conclusions

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pp. 248-262

...The work presented here is the product of a Russell Sage Foundation initiative that brought together an interdisciplinary team of social and biological scientists to investigate more fully both the pathways linking socioeconomic status (SES) and major health outcomes as well as the...

Index

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pp. 263-272