Cover

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pp. 1-9

Contents

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pp. 10-11

List of Illustrations

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pp. xi-xii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

...As I reflect back on the years over which this project has taken shape, I am overwhelmed by the sense that far from being a solitary endeavor, writing this book has in fact been a collective effort. At NYU I was fortunate to find myself under the expert tutelage of Karen Ordahl Kupperman...

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Author’s Note

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pp. xvii-xviii

...Dates have been modernized throughout, beginning the year on January 1, rather than on March 25, as was the case for England and its colonies under the Julian calendar until 1752. I have retained the original spelling and punctuation when quoting from sources, except when doing...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-14

...Irish laborer Cornelius Bryan began his Caribbean sojourn in the 1650s as the archetypical perfidious papist. Hauled in front of the Barbados Council, and accused of slandering English colonists by threatening to drink their blood, he was ordered to receive twenty-one lashes on his “bare back” at the Indian Bridge, a landmark that later gave one of the...

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1 “An Heathenishe, Brutish and an uncertaine, dangerous kind of People”: Figuring Difference in the Early English Atlantic

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pp. 15-43

...On a September afternoon in 1661, Sir Henry Walrond placed his signature on the “Act for Better Ordering and Governing of Negroes.” Following the upheaval of the interregnum, Walrond and the Barbados Assembly had put together the first comprehensive set of laws that would...

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2 “An exact account of the number of persons upon the Island”: Enumeration, Improvement, and Control

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pp. 44-70

...On a June morning in 1678 William Stapleton, the Irish governor of the Leeward Islands, sat at his desk melting some vermillion sealing wax into a spoon. Collected before him were the returns from the census he had ordered taken across Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, and St. Christopher...

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3 “To live in perpetuall noise and hurry”: Creating Communities on Caribbean Plantations

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pp. 71-100

...In the summer of 1670, Phillip Cheeke, a merchant from England, took an inventory of his property in the parish of St. Joseph on the island of Barbados. Bally Tree Hall was a substantial estate. The plantation covered 240 acres. It contained a “dwelling house” furnished with a variety...

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4 “Doing their prayers and worshipping God in their hearts”: Ritual, Practice, and Keeping the Faith

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pp. 101-128

...French Jesuit Father Antoine Biet reflected on the events of the previous week. He had traveled around Barbados in disguise, wary of being uncovered as a priest by the English he encountered. One surprise had been the ease with which he met Catholics eager to hear him perform mass. The Protestants in charge of the island did not seem to care as...

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5 “Endeavouring to raise mutinie and sedition”: The Challenge to English Domination

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pp. 129-155

...The summer of 1692 found Sambo, Sampson, and Ben hopeful. As skilled members of the enslaved community in Barbados, the three men had been moving around the island’s western parishes, talking to their fellow “carpenters, Bricklayers, wheelwrights, sawyers, Blacksmiths, Grooms,”...

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6 “As quietly and happily as the English subjects”: Property, Prosperity, and the Power of Emulation

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pp. 156-184

...John Blake sat at his desk in his Bridgetown home preparing to write a letter to his family back in Galway. He needed to respond to charges leveled by his brothers that he had allowed a disreputable Irish servant “whore” into his home. Henry in Montserrat, Thomas and Nicholas in...

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Epilogue

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pp. 185-192

...The construction of difference was always a multifaceted process in which the dynamics of power were in constant flux between officials in London and the people who lived and labored in the Caribbean. Whether based on ethnicity, labor, religion, or gender norms, differences...

Notes

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pp. 193-230

Bibliography

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pp. 231-252

Index

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pp. 253-261