Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. 1-6

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Figures

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pp. ix-x

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xiv

The promotion of corporate interests by the U.S. government takes place in many different forms. Quite frequently it occurs as a military intervention. Indeed, many people in the United States learn geography by looking up the place where the latest U.S. troop intervention has taken place: Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, possibly tomorrow Iran, and so on. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

We have dedicated the book to Walter Lear, who inspired this project—and all of us. Through this collective dedication, we aim to honor his legacy and infuse the book with Walter’s spirit, his boundless energy, and his commitment to health left history and activism. ...

Part I: Health Comrades in Context

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pp. 1-2

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Chapter 1. Introduction: Health Comrades, Abroad and at Home

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pp. 3-14

In January 1937 Lini De Vries, a widowed nurse and former factory worker from New Jersey, volunteered to be part of the American Medical Bureau’s (AMB) mission to Spain. For months she struggled to save the lives of brave young men who had been mortally wounded while fighting the enemies of Spanish democracy: ...

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Chapter 2. The Making of Health Internationalists

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pp. 15-42

How did health and left-wing internationalist politics come together in the early twentieth century? We approach this question by tracing the provenance of health internationalism, and how it emerged in the United States, against the odds, from two nineteenth-century sources that later converged. ...

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Part II: Generation Born in the 1870s–1910s

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pp. 43-44

The chapters in this section reflect the experiences of U.S. health internationalists who were born around the turn of the twentieth century, when the world was transformed by the intensification of global capitalism, the imperialist scramble for raw materials, colonies, and markets in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, ...

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Chapter 3. The Perils of Unconstrained Enthusiasm: John Kingsbury, Soviet Public Health, and 1930s America

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pp. 45-64

In 1933, against the background of intense discussions of the costs, the availability, and the delivery of medical care in the United States1 and the release of the final report of the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care,2 Doubleday Doran—the largest publishing house in the English-speaking world—brought out a three-hundred-page book ...

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Chapter 4. American Medical Support for Spanish Democracy, 1936–­1938

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pp. 65-81

The Spanish Civil War was a seminal moment for U.S. health-Left internationalism. From 1936 to 1938, the Fascist-supported assault on the democratically elected Republican government of Spain intensely engaged the U.S. Left, as it did progressive forces around the world. ...

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Chapter 5. Medical McCarthyism and the Punishment of Internationalist Physicians in the United States

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pp. 82-100

Studies of the impact of McCarthyism often overlook its effects on medicine. As noted by Manhattan obstetrician and activist Benjamin Segal in the mid-1950s, the “legion of men and women . . . [who were] exiles in their homeland . . . [and faced] economic and social reprisals . . . [by] being labeled subversive” included many physicians.1 ...

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Part III: Generation Born in the 1920s–1930s

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pp. 101-102

The chapters in this section reflect the experiences of a generation born in the 1920s and early 1930s (as immigrants or the children of immigrants) who grew up during the Depression and reached adulthood during World War II, the brief postwar interlude of internationalist optimism, and the Cold War. ...

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Chapter 6. Contesting Racism and Innovating Community Health Centers: Approaches on Two Continents

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pp. 103-118

This is the story of a pioneering health care innovation—the community health center (CHC)—merging primary medical care with population-targeted public health interventions. It is also the story of another merger—the use of health care as an instrument of social justice and empowerment for those oppressed by racism and poverty. ...

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Chapter 7. Barefoot in China, the Bronx, and Beyond

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pp. 119-133

The “barefoot doctor” has come to symbolize the attempts in China, under the leadership of Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) 1 and the Communist Party of China, to improve the provision of medical care for China’s vast rural population. The improvements began during the 1930s and 1940s with the work of the People’s Liberation Army (the “Red Army”) ...

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Chapter 8. Medical Internationalism and the “Last Epidemic”

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pp. 134-150

I was already middle-aged when I began an emotional and intellectual journey through rugged and uncharted terrain. I risked credibility and even retribution when I joined forces with a perceived enemy to contain the unparalleled terror of nuclear war. The enemy became a friend, and together we launched a global movement. ...

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Part IV: Generation Born in the 1940s–1960s

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pp. 151-152

The chapters in this section are written by members of the baby boom generation (born in the postwar decades) who came of age in the 1960s and 1970s amid the struggles of many new and resurgent political movements and groups—the civil rights movement and the more militant Black Panther Party and Young Lords, the anti–Vietnam War movement, ...

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Chapter 9. Social Medicine, at Home and Abroad

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pp. 153-167

Norman Bethune, a Canadian surgeon, provided an early inspiration for my efforts in social medicine, both internationally and in the United States. In his work with poor and marginalized patients in Detroit, Bethune became infected with tuberculosis, as I myself did while taking care of a family at La Clínica de la Raza, a community health center in Oakland, California. ...

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Chapter 10. Find the Best People and Support Them

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pp. 168-183

“Identify the best people and do everything you can to support them.” That was the advice of Milton Roemer, for decades a professor of public health at the University of California, Los Angeles and an internationally renowned expert on medical care systems. By “best” he meant the most capable, dedicated to the public good and committed to social justice. ...

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Chapter 11. Cooperantes, Solidarity, and the Fight for Health in Mozambique

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pp. 184-199

Health Alliance International (HAI) was founded, and continues to be sustained, by individuals strongly motivated by social justice concerns. But those of us participating in international health cooperation through HAI have sometimes found it challenging to maintain our initial idealism and enthusiasm. ...

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Chapter 12. From Harlem to Harare: Lessons in How Social Movements and Social Policy Change Health

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pp. 200-218

As far back as I can remember, we children were carted along to marches and meetings. I grew up in the multiracial, largely working-class community of Upper Manhattan. My parents are life-long activists, involved in the civil rights movement, the peace movement, and in more local issues, including schools and health care. ...

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Part V: Generation Born in the 1960s–1970s

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pp. 219-220

The chapters in this section are written by a fourth generation of health internationalists born in the 1960s and 1970s. They reached adulthood two decades later during the rapid and insidious spread of neoliberalism, the assault on unions and the Left generally, intensified technology–, finance sector– , and corporate-driven economic globalization, ...

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Chapter 13. Brigadistas and Revolutionaries: Health and Social Justice in El Salvador

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pp. 221-237

In 1981, while I was working in an ice cream shop and getting my GED after being kicked out of high school, the countries of Central America were enduring the worst of their civil wars. People there, especially young men and women my own age, were choosing, or being forced to choose, which side they were on and what they were willing to do for it. ...

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Chapter 14. Health and Human Rights in Latin America, and Beyond: A Lawyer’s Experience with Public Health Internationalism

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pp. 238-253

I was in Baborigame to document military atrocities, but the helicopter going to the military base was full that morning. So I stayed behind with the nuns, who were the only source of health care for the impoverished Tepehuac Indians in this remote area of northern Mexico. ...

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Chapter 15. History, Theory, and Praxis in Pacific Islands Health

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pp. 254-267

My father is from Hiroshima. Members of his immediate family were scattered far enough from the epicenter on August 6, 1945, to escape the bomb’s immediate physical effects. As a thirteen-year-old, together with his brother, he had been evacuated across the mountains. ...

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Chapter 16. Doctors for Global Health: Applying Liberation Medicine and Accompanying Communities in Their Struggles for Health and Social Justice

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pp. 268-285

Doctors for Global Health (DGH) began in 1995 in rural El Salvador during the years that the country began to rebuild after a devastating twelve-year civil war.1 Founding members of DGH had been invited three years prior by local community leaders to engage with them in transforming the fundamental causes of ill health plaguing their communities ...

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Chapter 17. Doctors Across Blockades: American Medical Students in Cuba

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pp. 286-300

Imagine a young generation of U.S. health progressives traveling to an “enemy state” to be trained in something that has eluded U.S. activists and policymakers for a century: social justice in health. The Escuela Latinoamericana de Medicina (ELAM), the Latin American School of Medicine, was founded in 1999 ...

Part VI: Conclusion

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pp. 301-302

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Chapter 18. Across the Generations: Lessons from Health Internationalism

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pp. 303-318

For almost a century, U.S. health leftists have looked overseas for what they hoped to accomplish at home. They found sites of political struggle where they could join forces with those fighting for social medicine and social justice abroad and, as can be attested to by the narratives in this volume, ...

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 319-324

Index

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pp. 325-350