Cover

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pp. 1-3

Title

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pp. iii-iii

Copyright

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pp. iv-vi

Contents

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pp. viii-ix

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

...This book is the culmination of many years of work by a lover of vocal chamber music. That love began in 1969, when I cofounded The Western Wind vocal ensemble, a sextet dedicated to a cappella music of all periods. About the time that The Western Wind gave its first concert, I began my search for a Ph.D. dissertation topic in music history at New York University. Strongly attracted to the great madrigals of Claudio Monteverdi, Giaches de Wert, and Luca Marenzio, I at first considered...

List of Bibliographical Abbreviations

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pp. xiii-xiv

List of RISM Sigla

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pp. xv-xviii

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1 Introduction

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pp. 1-16

...lines, and she was joined in the performance by four aristocratic ladies of the court. The sheer delight in singing celebrated in these verses encapsulates the Habsburg family’s deep affection for the art of music. From the time of Maximilian I (r. 1493– 1519), music had held a special place in the daily lives of the imperial family. Once the Habsburgs established the home of their empire along the Danube River in...

PART I: THE CANTATA IN VIENNA, 1658–1700

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2 The Political and Cultural Milieu

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pp. 19-31

...The old Habsburg dream of unifying the German Empire under one crown had been shattered by the Thirty Years’ War. The Treaty of Utrecht (1648) enabled each provincial German ruler to establish the religion of his convictions within his own boundaries and to emulate the absolutism already practiced successfully by the French...

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3 The Composers

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pp. 32-42

...The early years of Leopold’s reign must be counted among the most fruitful for music in the entire history of the Habsburg court. After a generation of relative stability marked by the long tenures of Bertali and Sances, the 1660s in particular witnessed an unusual amount of artistic innovation and musical activity. An influx...

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4 Repertoire and Sources

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pp. 43-49

...It is difficult to assess the amount of cantata activity in Vienna during the first half of Leopold’s reign, roughly 1658–80. Vast numbers of lost vocal chamber works by Bertali and Sances may have been composed between 1658 and their deaths in 1669 and 1679, respectively. The performances of several Cesti cantatas in 1667 tantalizingly...

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5 Text and Music

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pp. 50-76

...In order to gain a fuller appreciation of the richness and variety of the cantatas composed for Vienna in the last half of the seventeenth century, it is essential to examine in detail the style of a number of specific works by Bertali, Kerll, A. M. Viviani, Vismarri, Cappellini, Pederzuoli, and Draghi. While the works of these seven...

PART II: THE CANTATA IN VIENNA, 1700–1711

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6 The Political and Cultural Milieu

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pp. 79-99

...Emperor Leopold I’s successor, Joseph I (1678–1711), proved to be one of the most energetic, forceful, and intelligent leaders in the entire history of the Habsburg dynasty. His early death at the age of thirty-two, after only six years on the throne, can be counted as a major blow to the Austrian Empire. Charles VI, his brother...

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7 The Composers

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pp. 100-118

...In the waning years of the seventeenth century and the opening years of the eighteenth century, the Habsburg chapel at Vienna underwent a complete transformation. The period can be likened to the 1660s, a decade of rich innovation following years of status quo. In their turn, the 1660s were followed by the quarter-century...

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8 Repertoire and Sources

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pp. 119-137

...The sudden growth of cantata activity at Vienna in the early years of the eighteenth century can be attributed largely to the advent of a new generation of Habsburg rulers and court musicians. Perhaps the single most important factor was the rise of Joseph’s influence. Born in 1678, the heir to the throne was ready to assume a large...

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9 Style Overview

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pp. 138-158

...The new infusion of Italian talent at the beginning of the eighteenth century completely revitalized the imperial chapel and sustained its position as one of Europe’s leading centers of dramatic music.1 For nearly forty years Antonio Draghi, Leopold’s faithful servant and favored composer, had controlled the development of dramatic...

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10 Aspects of Form

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pp. 159-203

...In chapters 10–12 I examine in detail the style of twenty-five representative arias from Viennese chamber cantatas from the early eighteenth century.1 The discussion focuses upon aspects of form (chapter 10); melody, harmony, and rhythm (chapter 11); and the relationship of text and music (chapter 12). The twenty-five arias represent approximately 8.5 percent of the total (three hundred) and include...

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11 Melody, Harmony, and Rhythm

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pp. 204-259

...A study of melody, harmony, and rhythm in arias by secular cantata composers working in Vienna in the early eighteenth century greatly deepens our understanding of their individual styles. The composers use these basic style elements not only to enrich the content but also as sources that contribute to forward movement...

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12 The Relationship of Text and Music

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pp. 260-278

...One of the most subtle and complex aspects of the cantata repertoire concerns the relationship of text and music. The twenty-five arias discussed here reveal a fascinating amount of variety in the interaction of textual and musical design, in the coordination of poetry with melody and rhythm, and in the musical realization of...

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13 Conclusion: The Interregnum and Its Aftermath

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pp. 279-288

...Until 1709 events in the War of the Spanish Succession seemed to favor Austria, but a series of misfortunes quickly turned the tide in favor of France. These included Charles III’s inability to gain a stronghold in Spain and England’s decision to open peace negotiations with France in 1710. The possibility of a Spain reunited with the...

Appendix A Index of Cantata Text Incipits and Sources

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pp. 289-294

Appendix B Catalogue Raisonné of Viennese Cantata Sources

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pp. 295-308

Appendix C Texts of Arias Analyzed in Chapters 10–12

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pp. 309-312

Notes

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pp. 313-340

Editions and Bibliography

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pp. 341-352

Index

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pp. 353-369