We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

The Way

Religious Thinkers of the Russian Emigration in Paris and Their Journal, 1925-1940

Antoine Arjakovsky

Publication Year: 2013

The journal Put', or The Way, was one of the major vehicles for philosophical and religious discussion among Russian émigrés in Paris from 1925 until the beginning of World War II. This Russian language journal, edited by Nicholas Berdyaev among others, has been called one of the most erudite in all Russian intellectual history; however, it remained little known in France and the USSR until the early 1990s. This is the first sustained study of the Russian émigré theologians and other intellectuals in Paris who were associated with The Way and of their writings, as published in The Way. Although there have been studies of individual members of that group, this book places the entire generation in a broad historical and intellectual context. Antoine Arjakovsky provides assessments of leading religious figures such as Berdyaev, Bulgakov, Florovsky, Nicholas and Vladimir Lossky, Mother Maria Skobtsova, and Afanasiev, and compares and contrasts their philosophical agreements and conflicts in the pages of The Way. He examines their intense commitment to freedom, their often contentious struggles to bring the Christian tradition as experienced in the Eastern Church into conversation with Christians of the West, and their distinctive contributions to Western theology and ecumenism from the perspective of their Russian Orthodox experience. He also traces the influence of these extraordinary intellectuals in present-day Russia, Western Europe, and the United States.

Published by: University of Notre Dame Press


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 2-6


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. v-vi

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. vii-x

The intellectual creativity of the Russian emigration in Paris is a fairly well-known phenomenon, chronicled very ably by Marc Raeff, with its immediate historical background narrated more recently, with great vividness, by Lesley Chamberlain. But there has been a lack of more detailed studies of the sheer variety of convictions and visions to be found among the émigrés, ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. xi-xii

First of all, Antoine Arjakovsky is to be thanked for the enormous contribution that this study makes. It illumines a significant part of the history of the Russian emigration and its literature. More specifically, it holds up for us a diverse, often contentious group of scholars, teachers, and writers who struggled, almost a century ago, ...

Note on Transliteration and Other Conventions

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. xiii-xiv

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 1-32

This study has a threefold aim: to facilitate access to the prestigious journal Put’, or The Way,1 which is still little known; to explain the resurgence of interest in it in Russia and France in the last decade; and, finally, to test my methodology, which attempts to elaborate a synthesis between the historical truth and the accuracy of memory. ...

read more

Part 1: A Modernist Journal (1925–1929)

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 33-188

The formation of the consciousness of a generation is the fruit of complex processes and can be understood as a mythological phenomenon.1 Raoul Girardet has shown that in periods of historical upheaval, a society’s collective consciousness loses its traditional points of reference. That gives rise to a mythical effervescence within minority groups, which are the most threatened.2 ...

read more

Part 2: A Nonconformist Journal (1930–1935)

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 189-374

In the 1930s, Europe experienced “pivotal years” between war and peace, as expressed in the title of Henri Daniel-Rops’s book Les années tournantes, published in 1932. The consequences of America’s Great Depression, which little by little spread throughout Europe, would provoke the great civilization crisis of the thirties, which had been pending since the end of the First World War. ...

read more

Part 3: A Spiritual Journal (1935–1940)

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 375-518

Before World War I, Russian intellectuals, assembled in societies of religious philosophy, were inspired by a paradigm of “symbolic realism.” After the revolution of 1917, the émigrés regrouped within the modernist quadrilateral that was the “School of Paris” (the Academy of Religious Philosophy, The Way, the St. Sergius Institute, and the Russian Student Christian Movement). ...

read more

Conclusion: The Two “Bodies” of the Review

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 519-570

The Way was not merely a publication, a body of work that for more than fifteen years brought together the most eminent representatives of Russian religious thought. As we have been able to see throughout this account, it was also a “spiritual body,” a community of Russian intellectuals who were in the process of discovering their roles as spiritual figures. ...

read more

Afterword to the English Translation

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 571-583

During the summer of 1998, I finished writing this book as a doctoral thesis on The Way—a journal that many specialists consider the most brilliant of those produced by the Russian intelligentsia in the course of the twentieth century. Back then, my plan was to offer a synthesis between the different memories of the generation of intellectuals ...


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 584-669

References: Articles Published in The Way

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 670-716


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 717-766

Image Plates

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 783-790

About the Author, Back Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 791-792

E-ISBN-13: 9780268074746
E-ISBN-10: 0268074747
Print-ISBN-13: 9780268020408
Print-ISBN-10: 026802040X

Page Count: 704
Illustrations: 9 halftones
Publication Year: 2013

OCLC Number: 862208880
MUSE Marc Record: Download for The Way

Research Areas


UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • Russians -- France -- Paris -- Religion -- History -- 20th century.
  • Putʹ (Paris, France).
  • Russians -- France -- Paris -- Biography.
  • Immigrants -- France -- Paris -- Biography.
  • Intellectuals -- France -- Paris -- Biography.
  • Theologians -- France -- Paris -- Biography.
  • Russian periodicals -- France -- Paris -- History -- 20th century.
  • Paris (France) -- Intellectual life -- 20th century.
  • Paris (France) -- Religious life and customs.
  • Paris (France) -- Ethnic relations -- History -- 20th century.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access