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Creative Communities

Art Works in Economic Development

foreword by Rocco Landesman. edited by Michael Rushton

Publication Year: 2013

Urban and regional planners, elected officials, and other decisionmakers are increasingly focused on what makes places livable. Access to the arts inevitably appears high on that list, but knowledge about how culture and the arts can act as a tool of economic development is sadly lacking. This important sector must be considered not only as a source of amenities or pleasant diversions, but also as a wholly integrated part of local economies. Employing original data produced through both quantitative and qualitative research, Creative Communities provides a greater understanding of how art works as an engine for transforming communities.

"Without good data and analysis —much of it grounded in economic theory —we cannot hope to strengthen communities through the arts or to achieve any of the other goals we set for the National Endowment for the Arts, the largest nationwide funder of the arts." —from the Foreword by Rocco Landesman

Contributors: Hasan Bakhshi (Nesta UK), Elisa Barbour (University of California, Berkeley), Shiri M. Breznitz (Georgia Institute of Technology), Roland J. Kushner (Muhlenberg College), Rex LaMore (Michigan State University), James Lawton (Michigan State), Neil Lee (Nesta UK), Richard G. Maloney (Boston University), Ann Markusen (University of Minnesota), Juan Mateos-Garcia (Nesta UK), Anne Gadwa Nicodemus (Metris Arts Consulting), Douglas S. Noonan (Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis), Peter Pedroni (Williams College), Amber Peruski (Michigan State), Michele Root-Bernstein (Michigan State), Robert Root-Bernstein (Michigan State), Eileen Roraback (Michigan State), Michael Rushton (Indiana University), Lauren Schmitz (New School for Social Research), Jenny Schuetz (University of Southern California), John Schweitzer (Michigan State), Stephen Sheppard (Williams College), Megan VanDyke (Michigan State), Gregory H. Wassall (Northeastern University)

Published by: Brookings Institution Press

Front Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-x

...in 2009, I have spent a lot of my time in pursuit of creative placemaking, which seeks to integrate art and design in community planning and development, build shared spaces for arts engagement and creative expression, and increase local economic activity through arts and cultural activities. This goal has borne fruit in national programs such as Our Town, Art Place...

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pp. xi-xiv

...where these papers were first presented would not have taken place without the initiative and support of the National Endowment for the Arts. For their support of the project from its conception to publication, thanks are due to Rocco Landesman, Joan Shigekawa, Sunil Iyengar, Ellen Grantham, Bonnie...

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pp. 1-11

...cultural consumption and production on local economies. The chapters are based on papers presented at “The Arts, New Growth Theory, and Economic Development,” a May 2012 Brookings Institution symposium sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts. The central theme of the symposium was that the arts are not an amenity or a sector that exists in isolation but...

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Causal Agents or Canaries in the Coal Mine? Art Galleries and Neighborhood Change

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pp. 12-35

...industry. Economically, galleries are places of arts consumption, generally focusing on visual arts such as painting and sculpture. If artists visit galleries to learn about their peers’ work, galleries may also contribute to enhanced arts production. Galleries are almost always for-profit entities; the main distinction between galleries and museums is that museums typically display original art...

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The Arts, Consumption, and Innovation in Regional Development

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pp. 36-59

...has been dominated by economic (or export) base theory, which posits that exports drive overall growth, whether measured by employment, output, or value added. The dominance of export base theory directs policy attention and incentives chiefly to businesses whose output is exported from the city or region. In the United States, where economic development is practiced principally at the...

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A Case Study in Cultural Economic Development: The Adams Arts Programs in Massachusetts

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pp. 60-79

...typically include declining tax revenues, reduced federal and state aid, and increased demand for local services. As a result, local leaders are continuously searching for new economic development strategies to reinvigorate their tax base. During the past decade, the idea that the arts and culture sector can...

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Do Cultural Tax Districts Buttress Revenue Growth for Arts Organizations?

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pp. 80-96

...United States? A wealth of research has assessed whether lump-sum government transfers to nonprofit organizations “crowd out” private giving. However, less attention has been paid to the incidence of local voter-approved cultural tax districts in the country and the effect that they have had on the success and sustainability of participating organizations. The study presented...

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Arts, Crafts, and STEM Innovation: A Network Approach to Understanding the Creative Knowledge Economy

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pp. 97-117

...ongoing participation in the arts in adulthood may help individuals to develop the kinds of skills and knowledge that foster innovation in sciences and technologies. Since 1988 a number of scholars have noted the presence of indirect relationships between arts-rich communities and high-tech entrepreneurship...

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Arts Districts, Universities, and the Rise of Media Arts

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pp. 118-143

...economic growth and the presence of universities and arts districts might seem fairly straightforward. Universities are generally associated far more closely with innovation, at least the kinds of innovation measured in terms of patents and inventions, while arts districts are typically thought to promote...

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Cultural Enterprise Formation and Cultural Participation in America's Counties

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pp. 144-165

...invariably consider that question as part of their overall development. Entrepreneurship, like labor and capital, is mobile, but a new arts enterprise is most likely to emerge from a particular locale. As seen from other chapters in this volume, the particular characteristics of American communities affect the...

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The Economic Consequences of Cultural Spending

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pp. 166-189

...impact on the local economy? In some sense the answer to that question is obvious. When arts and culture production occurs, inputs are purchased, artists and support staff are paid, and that activity, like other types of production activity, is part of the local economy. Increased arts and culture production...

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Capital of Culture? An Economic Analysis of the Relationship between Arts and Cultural Clusers, Wages, and the Creative Economy in English Cities

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pp. 190-216

...decades suggests that policymakers consider the arts and cultural sector to be an important component of the infrastructure that makes their cities better able to innovate, compete, and grow. There is empirical evidence of a strong correlation between arts and cultural clustering on the one hand and the economic...


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pp. 217-218


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pp. 219-225

Series Page, Back Cover

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pp. 226-227

E-ISBN-13: 9780815724742
E-ISBN-10: 0815724748
Print-ISBN-13: 9780815724735
Print-ISBN-10: 081572473X

Page Count: 225
Publication Year: 2013

OCLC Number: 841229171
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Creative Communities

Research Areas


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Subject Headings

  • Artists and community -- Economic aspects.
  • Arts -- Economic aspects.
  • Art and state -- Economic aspects.
  • Regional economics.
  • Economic development.
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