Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-9

Contents

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pp. ix-x

Illustrations

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pp. xi-xii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

I am particularly grateful to three individuals for their advice and counsel in the preparation of this manuscript. Glen W. Davidson, chair of the Department of Medical Humanities at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was especially helpful in turning me to specific materials and themes. ...

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Introduction

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pp. xv-xx

In the freshness of its youth, the eclectic school of reform medicine stood as a symbol of America's optimism, imagination, enthusiasms, and eccentricities. Of solid Yankee inheritance, the school represented a powerful statement of the fraternity that its adherents felt with the great world movements of thought. ...

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1. The American Landscape

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pp. 1-30

The antecedents of American medical practice exist not only in the richness of European science and medicine but in the ideologically murky challenges of the New World frontier. From these sources, American colonists inherited an optimism that enriched them beyond measure and expanded their lives. ...

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2. Every Man His Own Physician

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pp. 31-65

By the opening decades of the nineteenth century, America's optimism about its future seemed limitless.1 From orators and poets to immigrants and frontiersmen, the United States had become a crucible of opportunity. In New England, hopes ran high that cotton manufacturing would absorb the full measure of America's domestic and foreign markets; ...

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3. Reformed Medicine, 1825-1856

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pp. 66-93

Although virtually unknown outside the United States, reform physicians independent of the Thomsonians emerged in the 1820s, emphasizing single remedies; they gave special attention to the plant materia medica and supported in theory the importance of education and a scientific approach to medicine. ...

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4. Buchanan's Feuds and Fads

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pp. 94-124

In a certain sense, eclectic medicine was less a school of thought than a temperament, disposition, or attitude. It stood squarely at the center of American intellectual thinking at mid-century. At once romantic and nationalistic, chafing at the confinement of orthodox medical thinking, it represented the right hopes, the shared vision, and the curiosity that invigorated much of America. ...

Gallery of Illustrations

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pp. 125-138

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5. Consolidation, 1856-1875

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pp. 139-166

As noted earlier, eclecticism was more than just an alternative approach to regular medical practice. It also offered itself to the American people as the common man's access to medical education-a topic hotly debated in the early years of the American Medical Association. ...

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6. Eclectic Materia Medica

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pp. 167-197

Although eclectics did not always agree on why or how their medicines worked, they held certain things more or less basic, that is, agents that impaired the vital power should be discarded; one disease could be cured by producing another; and noxious drugs should be avoided.1 ...

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7. Challenges, 1875-1910

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pp. 198-226

Throughout the nineteenth century, American medical education suffered whenever it was compared with the European system, which insisted on a strong preparatory education, demonstrated by rigorous examination. European medical schools offered more disciplines for study and four years of schooling, with each year's program lasting nine months. ...

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8. Malaise, 1910-1939

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pp. 227-254

However significant Abraham Flexner's report on medical education, its conclusions detailed changes that had already come with modern pathology and bacteriology and with the subsequent advances in pharmacology, in physiology, in anatomy, and especially in histology and embryology. ...

Notes

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pp. 255-296

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 297-324

Index

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pp. 325-340

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About the Author, Back Cover

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pp. 364-365

Johns. Haller, Jr., holds a dual appointment as professor of history at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, and professor of medical humanities at the SIU School of Medicine, Springfield. He is the author of Outcasts from Evolution: Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority, 1859-1900 (winner of the Anisfield-Wolf Prize in Race Relations); ...