Front Cover

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pp. C-C

Title Page, Map, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

As I tell my students every semester, the writing of history does not happen without a community who supports, encourages, teaches, inspires, and evaluates. This book is no exception. An international array of family, colleagues, and friends contributed their expertise and assistance to this project. The network of contributors spans the globe: from Asunción, Paraguay,...

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1: Introducing the Chaco Frontier

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pp. 1-10

A picture postcard from the Chaco War era (1932–1935) shows a large heart, emblazoned with the word “Paraguayo,” pumping its way through the f_lat dusty wilderness of the Chaco. The only people drawn were tiny Bolivian soldiers crushed by the organ. The heart, carefully illustrated to appear roughly in the shape of the nation, visually demonstrated the two parts of ...

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2: Forgetting Solano López: Debating the Paraguayan Foundational Narrative

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pp. 11-31

In mid-1924 the small literary journal Juventud, written and published by university students, included a short narrative entitled “Cerro Corá.”1 The author, Ramón Corvalan Ortiz, recounted his pilgrimage to Francisco Solano López’s burial place where the sights, sounds, and smells of this remote jungle grave stirred great emotion in the young man. Arriving at Cerro Corá on a ...

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3: Managing Rojas Silva: Rhetoric and Inaction

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pp. 32-59

On Saturday, March 26, 1927, fifty thousand people crowded into downtown Asunción to demonstrate their solidarity and outrage over the death of Lieutenant Adolfo Rojas Silva, the son of former Paraguayan president Liberato Marcial Rojas, at the hands of Bolivian “invaders.” According to reports in the newspapers, Bolivian forces near Fortín Sorpresa captured ...

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4: Comparing Eastern and Western Paraguay: Scientific Nationalism

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pp. 60-78

For centuries the Chaco caused anxiety in eastern Paraguay, bringing to mind the dreaded Guaycurú Indians. During the colonial period and immediately after independence, “Guaycurú” referred to all Indians who inhabited the Chaco. These “savages and barbarians” raided Asunción, plundering and pillaging the city; the attackers then found safety on the other ...

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5: Civilizing the Chaco: The Religious Arrive

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pp. 79-102

As spring arrived in the Southern Hemisphere in October 1925, Father Ramón Sosa Gaona penned a letter to his superiors in Asunción describing the state of his missionary work on the edge of the Chaco frontier. He had successfully established the centuries-old Catholic goal of a mission in the Chaco. Sosa Gaona gleefully reported the following to his superior on his ...

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6: Becoming Guaraní: Soldiers, Agriculturalists, and Poets

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pp. 103-123

In a letter dated December 21, 1928, Juan Azuaga spoke of his concern about events on the Chaco frontier. He observed that while there was no official word in the newspapers of fighting in the Chaco, many asuncenos, himself included, assumed that there must be conflict because unnamed “official sources” reported that Bolivia had received supplies from Europe, ...

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7: Remembering Solano López: The Rise of Febrerismo

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pp. 124-137

In 1933 poet and playwright Julio Correa predicted with great accuracy the national sentiment of 1936 and the tensions created with the end of the Chaco War and the return of soldiers from the Chaco frontier. Correa’s play, Guerra ayá (During the War), written in Guaraní, dramatically recreated the realities and hardships of rural Paraguayan life during the Chaco War. Of ...

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8: Reconsidering the Frontier: The Decades Following the War

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pp. 138-146

With the end of hostilities in the Chaco, several questions remained. What would the Paraguayans do with their newly secured frontier? Would they settle in the region in droves, realizing the area as a land of new opportunities? Would scientists, naturalists, and ethnographers continue their extensive study of the region begun during the early decades of the ...

Notes

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pp. 147-160

Bibliography

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pp. 161-170

Index

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pp. 171-179

Back Cover

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pp. BC-BC