Cover

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pp. C-C

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Researching and writing Servants of Allah was a singularly solitary endeavor. But once I emerged from the libraries, I immediately received the enthusiastic support of Niko Pfund, then director of NYU Press, and Jennifer Hammer, my attentive and brilliant editor. I am deeply thankful to both of them for the first edition and to NYU Press director Steve ...

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Introduction to the 15th Anniversary Edition

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pp. 1-19

In 1998, when Servants of Allah was first published, I could not have imagined that I would be writing a new introduction to the volume fifteen years later. Three years earlier, I could not even imagine this book would ever exist. I had started writing it in French, certain I would find a receptive publisher in Paris. Only when, to my utter surprise, no one ...

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1 African Muslims, Christian Europeans, and the Transatlantic Slave Trade

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pp. 20-70

When the first Africans were deported to the New World, beginning in 1501, Islam was already well established in West Africa. The religion revealed to the Arabian trader Muhammad between 609 and 632 C.E. had been introduced to North Africa as early as 660. South of the Sahara it had been known since the eighth century through contacts with ...

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2 Upholding the Five Pillars of Islam in a Hostile World

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pp. 71-98

Scattered across every region of the Americas, the Muslims entered a hostile world — a world that enslaved free Muslim men and women; a white Christian world determined to wipe out any trace of “paganism” or “Mohammadanism” in the newly arrived Africans....

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3 The Muslim Community

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pp. 99-142

Muslims strove hard to keep their religion alive, in both the enslaved community and the larger Christian society. But to be a Muslim was more than just respecting the Five Pillars of Islam. It implied a distinctive lifestyle. Especially for West Africans, with their community-based traditions, Islam is a highly communal, public, and visible religion. It ...

Images

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pp. 143-158

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4 Literacy: A Distinction and a Danger

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pp. 159-209

Th e Muslims’ literacy set them apart and became as distinctive as a physical trait. A slaveholder was so impressed with literate Sambo, for example, that he mentioned only this characteristic when he put a notice in the Charleston Courier of February 7, 1805, to advertise him as a run-away. Th e thirty-year-old man was a “new negro” (a recently arrived ...

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5 Resistance, Revolts, and Returns to Africa

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pp. 210-250

Frugal, serious, and for some dedicated to hard work in order to get their freedom or reach the upper echelons of the slave structure, the African Muslims may have appeared, at first glance, to be “model slaves.” These characteristics, however, represent only one facet of their experience in the Americas, that which drew on their education and discipline ...

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6 The Muslim Legacy

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pp. 251-284

With a documented presence of five hundred years, Islam was, aft er Catholicism, the second monotheist religion introduced into the post-1492 Americas. It preceded Lutheranism, Methodism, Baptism, Calvin-ism, Santeria, Candomble, and Vodun to name a few. All these religions are alive today and are followed by the vast majority of the Africans’ ...

Notes

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pp. 285-314

Select Bibliography

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pp. 315-326

Index

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pp. 327-340

About the Author

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pp. 341-341