Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title page, copyright page

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pp. 2-5

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Introduction

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pp. vii-xiv

The Russian Federation is one of the world’s largest multiethnic states, whose internal structure includes various entities. Its political division is based on territorial, ethnic, and territorial-ethnic principles. The Russian Federation is not a result of unionization of its members by virtue of agreement or treaty. ...

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1. Russia’s Policy Towards Kalmyks (Late 16th–mid-17th Centuries)

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pp. 1-54

The process of establishing a centralized Russian state, which was formed as a multinational state on a multiethnic basis, was over in the second half of the 16th century. While before the middle of the 16th century the Russian state was joined by the Karelians, Komi, Khanty, Meshchera, Mordovians, Udmurts, and other peoples, ...

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2. The Kalmyk Khanate as a Part of Russia (mid-17th–Second Half of 18th Centuries)

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pp. 55-120

The objective factors of Kalmyks’ social, political, state, and economic development finally resulted in the formation of the national state in the form of a khanate within Russia. Sharing the opinion expressed by M.L. Kichikov, we can say that the actual acknowledgment and formation of the Kalmyk Khanate took place in 1664 ...

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3. Kalmykia’s Status in the Russian Empire (Late 18th–Early 20th Centuries)

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pp. 121-198

When a substantial part of Kalmyks left for Dzungaria in late 1771, the political map of the Kalmyk steppe underwent fundamental changes. The abolishment of the Kalmyk Khanate meant the liquidation of the Kalmyk national statehood, and—to use contemporary terms—cancellation of Kalmykia’s status of a constituent member of Russia. ...

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4. The Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Oblast in the Years of Socialism Building (1917-1935)

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pp. 199-270

The October Revolution of 1917 and Soviet power opened a new page in the history of Kalmykia and its statehood. Modern history turned out to be complicated and controversial—with both positive and negative aspects. It was directly related to the nationalities policy of Bolsheviks, which involved departures from their program and ideology ...

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5. The Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Republic Under Totalitarianism and During the Stagnation Period

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pp. 271-346

By the early 1930s, the bureaucratic centralization induced by the party was drawing to an end. Only formal elements of federalism remained from the federal state, and Stalin’s repressive policy was actively imposed. However, the process of the Soviet national and state building and resolution of national problems were vigorously simulated. ...

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6. Kalmykia Within the New Russian Federal System

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pp. 347-426

As the crisis of the Soviet system aggravated, social and interethnic controversies also intensified. In the late 1980s, the CPSU made some attempts to address these disturbing processes. Having discussed the issues related to interethnic relations, the 19th party conference, which was held on June 28–July 1, 1988, drafted an action program in this sphere. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 427-430

A group of Oirats (Kalmyks), which moved to the north-west toward Russia from the Dzungaria whose territorial unity had disrupted, eventually constituted the backbone population group in a newly developing form of the Kalmyk statehood that was typical of the feudal division period. ...

Index of Proper Names

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pp. 431-440

Illustrations

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pp. 456-463

Back cover

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pp. 464-464