Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-viii

Contents

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xvi

...Each of the audio, video, or still image media examples listed below is associated with specific passages in this book, and each example has been assigned a unique persistent uniform resource identifier, or PURL. The PURL points to the location of a specific audio, video, or still image media example on the Ethnomusicology Multimedia website, www.ethnomultimedia.org. Within the running text of the book, a “PURL number” in parentheses functions...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xx

...When I first began this project in 1983, I collected Christian songs from women in Goibei village in Western Kenya for ear training, sight-reading, and music theory exercises at Kenyatta University College. In 1986, the research resulted in a musicological treatise on Arthur Kemoli’s invocation of Logooli melodies for academic and civic discourse. That work at East Carolina...

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Note on spelling and Orthography

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pp. xxi-xxii

...All vowels in Lulogooli are pure, pronounced as in Latin vowels. With diphthongs, the affected vowels are spelled out. Some consonants have various spellings related to tongue and teeth placement. For example, “z” is spelled as “z,” “dz,” or “ts.” The spelling for a lapped “l” is either “l” or “r.” These spellings are ignored when I directly quote poems from hymnals. I tried to leave the...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xxiii-xxvi

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1. Prelude

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pp. 1-13

...Music and religion are both incarnational processes and archival resources. As processes, they narrate themselves in lived experiences as dynamic forms; as resources, they inscribe, crystallize, and document social identity. Starting in the nineteenth century, music practices in Africa have been transformed by contact with modern Christianity. These practices are as diverse as the...

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2. Assembly: Logooli Historical, Cultural, and Musical Background

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pp. 14-36

...Avalogooli are called Maragoli by non- Luyia.3 It has become the accepted national reference to the group. Maragoli is also the official Kenyan government name for Logooli country. It is currently subdivided into several counties with different names. Avalogooli have also migrated to other parts of Kenya and abroad. Prior to the demarcation of land by British colonists, each Logooli clan or subclan had territorial boundaries owned by and distributed amongst the men. Clans were/are the political nucleus of the subgroup. They originally had a central...

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3. Encounter: Avalogooli and Euro-American Religion, Culture, and Music

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pp. 37-70

...The introduction of Euro-American Christian music into Logooli society was a direct result of missionary activity in Kenya. Kenya’s first enduring encounter with European Christianity was through Portuguese explorers at the close of the fifteenth century (Were and Wilson 1971, 26; Ogot and Kieran 1968 Barrett et al. 1973 21, 29; Hildebrandt 1981, 63–65). These Catholic Christian attempts, concentrated on Kenya’s coast, were abandoned when...

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4. Consolidation: Christian Religious Genres in Logooli-Land

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pp. 71-95

...The musics accompanying Euro-American Christianity and cultures have been part of Logooli lore since the first decade of the twentieth century. In addition to translated and missionary styled songs, new musics have been composed in Logooli and Kenyan idioms. These songs are conceptualized as Logooli music and form part of the custodial corpus preserving and vitalizing...

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5. Accommodation: Logooli Adoption and Use of 'Book' Music

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pp. 96-152

...message of the song or the first line of the stanza or refrain. It is therefore difficult to find some songs in the index. The texts and musical structure reveal cultural, lyrical, and melodic sources, as well as the missionaries’ musical and theological preferences. Avalogooli made room for or accommodated the repertoire introduced by missionaries in their newfound Christian religious...

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6. Syncretism: Logooli Christian Songs of the Spirit

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pp. 153-182

...At the onset of the twentieth century, the Pentecostal and Holiness phenomena ignited the growth of new church musics. These musics had been fermenting in earlier revival movements in Europe and the United States. They were also rooted in the musico-cultural ethos of the peoples and denominations that embraced these events (e.g., Goff 2002, 13–32; Southern 1983, 127–130, 444–456; Synan 1987). For most of these groups...

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7. Invocation: Logooli Christian Songs in Contemporary Education and Media

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pp. 183-227

...The negotiation of Logooli Christian musical identity since the 1970s is best analyzed through the historical dynamics of contemporary education systems and the mass media. The education system, rooted in missionary endeavor, subscribed to a European ideology advocating for music literacy as well as European compositional and performance frameworks...

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8. Epilogue

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pp. 228-234

...Beginning with the nineteenth-century encounter with Christianity, Kenyans and their musicians have processed the European or American musics introduced alongside the religion. Communities such as Avalogooli transformed the texts and forms to conform to local, acceptable, and contemporary standards. Avalogooli were introduced to Euro-American Christianity and Western hymnody from the beginning of the twentieth century...

Appendix 1. Archival and Media House Records

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pp. 235-238

Appendix 2. Song Text and Hymn Tune Sources

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pp. 239-242

Glossary of Terms

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pp. 243-248

Notes

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pp. 249-266

Bibliography

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pp. 267-280

Index

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pp. 281-290