Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. v-vi

Contents

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pp. ix-xi

Figures

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pp. xiii-xiv

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Foreword

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pp. xv-xx

In a way, there is nothing new about animals as the focus of learned investigation. The ancient genre of the bestiary, a massive compendium of known and unknown animals, continued to flourish in Europe through the medieval period. Since at least the late seventeenth century, which is when the Oxford English Dictionary identifies the first occurrence ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxv

Books, like zoological gardens, are shaped by conventions, hierarchies of things and ideas that often remain hidden in plain sight but which nonetheless carry considerable meaning. I am grateful for those conventions now, since the format of the book requires that I place the acknowledgments where they belong: at the beginning. The Nature of the ...

Note on Transliteration

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pp. xxvii-xxvii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-22

Over the course of the nineteenth century, Japa nese redefi ned and reshaped their place in the natural world. A new understanding of the animal— and thus the human— was central to that transformation. When United States Commodore Matthew C. Perry steamed into the bay of Edo (present- day Tokyo Bay) at the head of a naval squadron that ...

Part One. The Nature of Civilization

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Chapter 1. Japan’s Animal Kingdom

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pp. 25-60

Ecological modernity began to quicken in Japan when Udagawa Yōan completed his Botany Sutra ( Botanika kyō) in 1822, an act of translation that claimed revolutionary social and scientific consequences. It was in that short essay that Udagawa (1798– 1846), already a noted translator of Western medical and scientifi c texts at the age of twentyfour, proposed the Japa nese word for “animal” that is still used ...

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Chapter 2. The Dreamlife of Imperialism

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pp. 61-92

By the close of the nineteenth century, as the Japa nese archipelago entered a period of sustained industrialization, the taxonomic separation of people from animals instigated by Udagawa Yōan in 1822 had become a source of mass- culture longing and lament. When the Imperial House hold Ministry approved the construction of a pop u lar exhibit for ...

Part Two. The Culture of Total War

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Chapter 3. Military Animals

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pp. 95-119

Nature and the natural world— as a concept and a physical resource— played crucial roles in the articulation of Japanese war time culture in the years between 1937 and 1945. Japanese military and political leaders used the country’s limited natural resources as a primary justification for their aggressive actions overseas. Japan, the story went, was a ...

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Chapter 4. The Great Zoo Massacre

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pp. 120-162

The most disturbing thing that ever happened at the Ueno Zoo was the systematic slaughter of the garden’s most famous and valuable animals in the summer of 1943. At the height of the Second World War, as the Japanese empire teetered on the brink of collapse, the zoo was transformed from a wonderland of imperial amusement and exotic curiosity ...

Part Three. After Empire

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Chapter 5. The Children’s Zoo Elephant Ambassadors and Other Creatures of the Allied Occupation

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pp. 165-192

“Bambi,” a diminutive white-tailed fawn, arrived at the Tokyo’s Ueno Imperial Zoo on May 19, 1951, with great fanfare. The first of his species (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibited at the Ueno Zoo, the fawn was a gift from Walter Disney himself to the children of Japan in celebration of the end of the war and the Japa nese premiere of the animated ...

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Chapter 6. Pandas in the Anthropocene

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pp. 193-229

When two giant pandas arrived at Tokyo’s Ueno Imperial Zoo from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on October 28, 1972, it signaled diplomatic normalization between former foes in a brutal colonial war. It also marked the apex of human fascination with the world of the zoo in Japan. Few animals so clearly encapsulated the workings— and limits— of ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 231-238

When an unnamed 144-gram giant panda cub died at the Ueno Zoo on July 11, 2012, it gave form to the enduring paradoxes of ecological modernity.1 The story of this tiny furless animal illustrates at one and the same time the mass appeal of animals and nature within Japa nese society and an unfulfi lled longing for those same things. It shows how ...

Notes

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pp. 239-284

Bibliography

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pp. 285-313

Index

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pp. 315-322