Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-7

Table of Contents

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pp. vii-9

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xii

David G. Marr’s scholarship on modern Vietnam needs no introduction. In a series of path- breaking studies published by the University of California Press, Marr has provided definitive accounts of Vietnamese anti-colonialism, socio-cultural change, and revolution. Now, in Vietnam: State, War, and Revolution (1945– 46), Marr draws on a wide array of Vietnamese- language memoirs, news-...

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Preface

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pp. xiii-23

I began my encounter with Vietnam in the 1960s, wondering why so many people talked with such excitement about where they were and what they were doing in 1945– 46. Vietnamese materials about that era proved very hard to find, however. There was almost nothing in Saigon libraries or bookshops. I located a left - wing book store in Hong Kong that sold subscriptions to Hanoi periodicals, ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-18

This book is about the birth of the Vietnamese nation amidst war and revolution. The story bears comparison with the American Revolution (or War of In dependence), although I don’t pursue that line of inquiry here. Proclaimed in Hanoi in early September 1945, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) rapidly gained popular support. However, the provisional government had to deal immediately ...

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1. Forming the DRV Government

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pp. 19-56

Amidst the revolutionary tumult of August 1945, a new Vietnamese government began to take shape. Although the young Vidt Minh activists who took custody of public buildings in Hanoi on 19 August had almost no experience at governing, they knew enough to use the Post, Telegraph and Telephone (PTT) system to demand and receive allegiance from most northern province offices, and then ...

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2. The Government at Work

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pp. 57-110

With the DRV administrative hierarchy erected and national elections realized, attention shift ed to convening the National Assembly, ending the government’s provisional status, drafting a constitution, and enhancing Hanoi’s capacity to direct local affairs. During February and March 1946, Hò Chí Minh had to concentrate on negotiations with the French and Chinese (see chapter 4), yet he found ...

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3. Defense

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pp. 111-182

Contrary to popular belief, the new regime in Hanoi did not commit itself to guerrilla resistance following the example of several hundred Liberation Army members who had descended from the northern hills in late August 1945. In-stead, the provisional DRV government declared its intention to build a modern regular army capable of defending the entire territory of Vietnam, from the Sino- ...

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4. Peace or War?

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pp. 183-257

As Hò Chí Minh and his lieutenants put together a provisional government at the end of August 1945 and prepared to declare Vietnam’s in dependence, they had ample reason to expect vigorous French opposition. Five months earlier, the provisional government of Charles de Gaulle had announced to the world its intention to form an “Indochina Federation” within a “French Union,” with metropoli-...

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5. Seeking Foreign Friends

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pp. 258-314

Between 1940 and the summer of 1945, Indochina endured five years of isolation, except for the coming and going of Imperial Japanese forces and news filtered by Vichy French and Japanese censors. With the sudden capitulation of Japan to the Allied powers in mid- August 1945, Vietnamese in both town and countryside wanted to find out what had been happening in the world at large, and then try to ...

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6. Material Dreams and Realities

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pp. 315-382

In times of revolution, hopes are aroused of great abundance, an end to fear about where the next meal will come from, an ability to enjoy the fruits of one’s labor, and membership in a much larger effort to create a new order of production, exchange, and community welfare. In Vietnam, material aspirations became linked with ideas of progress and modernity. In this future life, farmers would obtain ...

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7. Dealing with Domestic Opposition

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pp. 383-441

Amidst the revolutionary exaltation of August 1945, no feeling was more wide-spread than national solidarity— the joy experienced when “the people” (dân chúng; nhân dân) join together as never before to build and defend “the nation” (quóc gia), or, more colloquially, “our country” (nuõc ta). Vietnamese who had never met before saluted each other as “comrade” (đòng chí), shared food and ...

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8. The Indochinese Communist Party and the Việt Minh

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pp. 442-498

While the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) was easily the most significant political organization in Vietnam in late 1945, it did not control the civil administration, most available firearms, or many of the self- styled Vidt Minh groups which had sprung up across the country. ICP members did enter state offices in late August and employ the colonial telegraph system to order whoever sat at ...

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9. Mass Mobilization

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pp. 499-568

During August 1945, Vietnamese participated in an astonishing outpouring of popular exuberance and collective action. Nothing in their own lifetimes offered precedent. There was no certainty that such intense involvement would persist, however. Over the next sixteen months it is possible to delineate three mobilizational patterns. The first was millenarian in character, with citizens called on to ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 569-578

Beginning the night of 19– 20 December 1946, DRV forces tried to overwhelm a number of French garrisons before relief could arrive. The small French detachment at Vinh (Nghd An) capitulated on 21 December. In Hanoi, after six National Guard battalions failed to overrun designated enemy positions, one battalion joined fifteen hundred militia men and women inside the old 36 Street complex to ...

Notes

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pp. 579-688

Sources

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pp. 689-700

Index

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pp. 701-721