History and the Testimony of Language
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: University of California Press
Series: California World History Library
Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, Dedication
List of Illustrations
...This work builds on four decades of teaching, research, and writing. it represents the flowing together of innumerable personal and scholarly influences, each widening and deepening my understanding of my disciplines—linguistics and history— and each introducingme to people and places on the linguistic and historicalmaps and to new ideas and...
PART ONE. EVIDENCE AND METHOD
1. Methods and Myths
...This book is about history and the practical power of language to reveal history. Though it speaks to the disciplines of anthropology and historical linguistics, which pioneered many of the approaches depicted here, it is a book above all for readers and students of history...
2. Writing History from Linguistic Evidence
...Every language contains a wealth of historical documentation on the people who have spoken it in the past.What do we mean by this claim? Just what are the data that a language provides for the writing of human history? Every language is an archive of many thousands of individual artifacts of the past. These artifacts are the words of the language. Each language contains the full range of vocabulary necessary to express the whole...
3. Historical Inference from Transformations in the Vocabularies of Culture
...building historical chronologies from language evidence and periodizing the lexical documents of cultural practice and knowledge were the brief of chapter 2. by setting this linguistic historical framework in place, the historian opens up a wide variety of further pathways toward inferring history from language. is chapter explores in particular what the study of semantic...
4. Historical Inference from Word Borrowing
...A second essential angle of approach to deriving history from lexical evidence is through inference from the histories of word borrowing. Word borrowing is perhaps the single most important category of lexical evidence because from it we uncover the histories of societies in the time spans that lie between the nodal periods of the linguistic chronology. such evidence...
5. Linguistic Dating
...To establish the linguistic stratigraphy of a language family or branch of a family, as we saw in chapter 2, is to establish the relative chronology of the history of the language group and the peoples who have spoken those languages. How does one assign absolute dates to the relative timescale? Linguistic inquiry, unlike archaeology, does not directly generate independently datable artifacts; hence the importance of the indirect approaches of correlating language...
PART TWO. APPLICATIONS
6. History in the Sahara: Society and Economy in the Early Holocene
...This chapter presents the first of four studies exemplifying in different ways the application of linguistic testimony to writing history as historians write it—to the overall courses of social, cultural, economic, demographic, and other developments among the peoples of particular regions and ages of history. These studies proceed chronologically, with this chapter tackling the transformative...
7. Social Transformation in the Horn of Africa, 500 BCE to 500 CE
...The establishment of semitic languages in the Horn of Africa during the last millennium BCE accompanied a major set of social historical transformations. Languages new to an area do not displace other languages from use for trivial reasons of taste or fashion, but normally because the social formations associated with the new languages are spreading at the expense of previous social formations. The patterns of relationship among the Ethiosemitic languages...
8. Recovering the History of Extinct societies: A Case study from East Africa
...one of the more fascinating capacities of linguistic methodology is its ability to allow historians to identify extinct societies and even to reconstruct many elements of the histories of those extinct communities. The lexical documents supporting this kind of historical reconstruction are loanwords from the extinct languages, preserved in the lexicons of the later languages of a region. The particular kinds of loanwords preserved in this fashion, of course, reveal...
9. Cultural Diffusion in the Atlantic Age: American Crops in Eastern Africa
...A closing theme of importance for the use of language evidence in history revolves around what the diffusion of individual words for new items of culture can reveal about the diffusion of things and ideas. A historical context highly illustrative of the revelatory powers of this documentation is the Atlantic Age. Unprecedented changes pervaded the world over the course of that age, from the middle fifteenth century into the twentieth century. new items...
Appendix 1. Outline Classification of Afrasian (Afroasiatic): Diagnostic Branch Innovations
Appendix 2. Proto-Afrasian and Proto-Erythraic Subsistence
Appendix 3. Development of Nilo-Saharan Lexicons of Herding and Cultivation
Appendix 4. Interpreting the Ethiosemitic Cognation Matrix
Appendix 5. Cushitic Loanwords in Ethiosemitic Core Vocabulary