Emerging Avian Disease
Published for the Cooper Ornithological Society
Publication Year: 2012
Published by: University of California Press
Series: Studies in Avian Biology
Title Page, Copyright
...Wildlife biologists once believed that mortality from diseases in wildlife populations was compensatory and, thus, did not affect populations. Instead, they focused on other sources of mortality when conducting population studies. Many avian biologists also held that belief because most disease outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting, resulting in minor losses. Even then, however, there were localized threats from bird malaria and avian pox virus, for example, to the endangered native bird populations of Hawaii and some large, very localized mortality...
Part I: Environmental and Behavioral Aspects of Transmission
1 ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS OF WEST NILE VIRUS AND AVIAN HOSTS IN AN ARID ENVIRONMENT
...We evaluated disease associations of West Nile virus (WNV) with avian hosts in four key habitats of southern New Mexico (agriculture, desert, riparian, and urban). Our goal was to examine the role of avian life history traits in transmission of WNV and to evaluate possible mechanisms to explain differences in seroprevalence among avian communities. Seroprevalence was highest in Summer Tanagers...
2 THE TRANS-ATLANTIC MOVEMENT OF THE SPIROCHETE BORRELIA GARINII: THE ROLE OF TICKS AND THEIR SEABIRD HOSTS
...closely related to European strains of the spirochete, and its likely source is from areas of endemicity in the Bothnian Gulf and the northeast Atlantic seabird colonies where seabirds, songbirds, and two different tick species come in close proximity. Phylogenetic studies suggest a gradual movement of the European strains into seabird colonies in the northeast Atlantic with subsequent spread into the North and northwest Atlantic colonies. Atlantic Puffins seem to be suitable reservoirs, although other abundant species such as Common Murres and Thick-billed Murres...
3 PARASITISM IN THE ENDEMIC GALÁPAGOS DOVE (ZENAIDA GALAPAGOENSIS) AND ITS RELATION TO HOST GENETIC DIVERSITY AND IMMUNE RESPONSE
...We hypothesized that (1) host genetic diversity would be negatively related to parasite abundance, (2) genetic diversity would be positively related to body condition of birds, (3) immune response would be positively related to blood parasite intensity but not to louse abundance, (4) alternatively, higher blood parasite intensity generates increased immunosuppression, leading to a lower white blood cell count and indirectly to a lower body condition, and (5) the abundances of the three parasite species...
Part II: Population-Level Impacts
4 PREVALENCE AND EFFECTS OF WEST NILE VIRUS ON WILD AMERICAN KESTREL (FALCO SPARVERIUS) POPULATIONS IN COLORADO
...To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of freeranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV...
5 FIRST EXAMPLE OF A HIGHLY PREVALENT BUT LOWIMPACT MALARIA IN AN ENDEMIC NEW ZEALAND PASSERINE: PLASMODIUM OF TIRITIRI MATANGI
...have been associated with the death of these birds. Such occurrences have highlighted concerns regarding the possibility of a malaria- associated epizootic event within the New Zealand avifauna similar to that witnessed within Hawaii’s naïve native bird populations. In contrast to previous findings, we report the first instance of a high prevalence...
Part III: Monitoring, Detection, and Research Practices
6 PROTOTYPE SYSTEM FOR TRACKING AND FORECASTING HIGHLY PATHOGENIC H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA SPREAD IN NORTH AMERICA
...The recent emergence of a highly pathogenic strain (H5N1) of avian influenza that affects both birds and humans has raised global concern about its spread. Given the rapid spread of the disease and the desire for proactive monitoring and preparedness, I present a prototype forecasting framework for H5N1 dispersal for when/ if it arrives in North America via migratory bird movements. The prototype summarizes...
7 IMMUNOPHENOTYPING OF AVIAN LYMPHOCYTES: IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE FOR UNDERSTANDING DISEASE IN BIRDS
...T-cell populations can be delineated into subsets based on their expression of cell-surface proteins such as cluster of differentiation (CD) cell surface markers. However, immunophenotyping using flow cytometry in birds has focused on cell characterization in the thymus and spleen during development in chickens. West Nile virus (WNV) causes differential infections in birds, ranging the entire spectrum of pathogenesis. In order to accurately assess...
8 ZOONOTIC DISEASES: WHAT ORNITHOLOGISTS AND BIRD BANDERS SHOULD KNOW
...Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (“HPAI H5N1”) first made news in 2004 and seemed to dominate headlines for several years. The alarmism belies the fact that the impact to human health has been slight. Though human outbreaks have been occurring since 1997 (WHO 2005), only 500 human cases, including 294 deaths, were reported to the World Health Organization from 2003 through July 2010 (WHO 2010). Though there have been several confirmed cases of human-to-human transmission...