Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-viii

Table of Contents

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pp. ix-x

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

...source of information on environmental flows — “the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend upon these ecosystems’’ (Brisbane Declaration 2007). Water in its standing and flowing phases, in gaseous, liquid, and solid forms, drives a global cycle of hydrological processes that...

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1. River Values and Threats

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pp. 1-12

...Rivers and their associated floodplains, groundwater, and wetlands are in crisis. Globally they are the world’s most damaged ecosystems, losing species at a rate that far outstrips the decline of biodiversity in terrestrial and marine systems (Dudgeon et al. 2006). A new synthesis of threats to the world’s rivers (Vörösmarty et al. 2010) has found that over 83% of the land surface surrounding aquatic systems...

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2. Global Hydrology, Climate, and River Flow Regimes

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pp. 13-34

...The natural fluctuations of freshwater ecosystems and water supplies are governed by the climatic regime of the region and the prevailing hydrologic cycle — the dynamic mechanism connecting all forms of water in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases and in the cells and tissues of living organisms (Fig. 1). In a perpetual cycle driven by solar energy, the global hydrological cycle delivers an...

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3. Catchments, Drainage Networks, and Resource Regimes

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pp. 35-48

...Rivers and other freshwater systems receive their water from rain, hail, sleet, and snow in the endless flow of evaporation, transpiration, precipitation, infiltration, and runoff processes of the hydrologic cycle. Water is delivered to each freshwater system from its catchment or drainage basin (watershed) — an area of land that collects...

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4. River Ecology, the Natural Flow Regime Paradigm, and Hydroecological Principles

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pp. 49-74

...The directionality of flowing water is so vital to running waters that physical system structure and ecological linkages within a river system are generally divided into longitudinal, lateral, and vertical vectors (Poole 2002). River ecosystems have also been visualized as fourdimensional systems made up of longitudinal, lateral, and vertical components, relationships, and processes...

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5. Effects of Catchment Change and River-Corridor Engineering

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pp. 75-86

...Every environmental flow assessment has a catchment context with a particular “human footprint” (Sanderson et al. 2002). Environmental flow assessments are most often focused on the geomorphic and ecological implications of flow alterations below large dams, but many other human interventions at the catchment scale intercept or exacerbate overland flows and influence the...

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6. History of Water Control and Dam Impacts

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pp. 87-98

...Human activities have modified the natural hydrologic and ecological processes of catchments and rivers, wetlands, floodplains, and estuaries for thousands of years (Boon et al. 1992). Early hunter-gatherer societies drew upon the natural resources of rivers and floodplains, their riparian corridors, and the surrounding areas for water, food, and shelter (Freitag et al. 2009). Fishing and...

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7. Effects of Dams on Sediment, Thermal, and Chemical Regimes

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pp. 99-112

...Dams are the most obvious direct modifiers of river flow because they capture both low and high flows and can alter the entire flow regime in many different ways. Modification of the natural flow regime dramatically affects sediment dynamics and channel morphology, nutrient transformations and other chemical conditions, thermal regime, habitat structure, and recruitment of both aquatic and riparian species...

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8. Effects of Dams on Habitat and Aquatic Biodiversity

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pp. 113-124

...Flowing water creates and maintains a variety of habitats, reflecting channel planform and variation in hydraulic conditions across the stream, modified by habitat elements such as fallen timber, fine vegetable litter, overhanging and in-stream vegetation, rocky outcrops, undercut banks, and root masses (Pusey et al. 1993). These elements and the distribution patterns of flow velocities and...

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9. Introduction to Environmental Flow Methods

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pp. 125-138

...Environmental flow assessments (EFAs) take place in many different management contexts, at various spatial scales, within different biophysical systems, and in contrasting socioeconomic contexts and political settings. These settings and circumstances have a strong bearing on the methods most suited to achieving desired ecological outcomes. As many reviews of methods have noted...

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10. Hydraulic Rating and Habitat Simulation Methods

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pp. 139-148

...Both the Montana Method (Tennant 1976) and the FDC approach (Stalnaker and Arnette 1976) are based on the premise that the amount and quality of habitat in a stream is related to the amount of water transported down its channel. Hydraulic rating methods seek to define the relationship between flow volume (discharge) and the amount and type of habitat provided during the passage of...

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11. Flow Protection Methods

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pp. 149-164

...A major shift in thinking about environmental flows emerged in the early 1990s, when river scientists concerned about the limitations of existing water-allocation methods (then termed “in-stream flow methods”) increasingly made the case for a broader approach to sustain and conserve river ecosystems rather than just a few target species. Conceptual foundations were laid...

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12. Flow Restoration Methods

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pp. 165-180

...River fragmentation and flow regulation by dams are the most pervasive and destructive changes wrought by humans in rivers worldwide (Dynesius and Nilsson 1994; Vörösmarty et al. 2010). Dams sever dynamic, interconnected surface-water and groundwater pathways of the river continuum, and they disrupt the natural flow regimes that create environmental heterogeneity and maintain...

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13. Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)

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pp. 181-198

...All existing environmental flow assessment (EFA) methods — from hydrological to habitat simulation and ecosystem approaches — necessarily involve significant use of risk assessment, professional judgment, and expert opinion. How can environmental flow methods and the underlying science be enhanced to shift away from expert advice and risk assessment toward more quantitative...

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14. Environmental Flow Relationships, Models, and Applications

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pp. 199-212

...Environmental flow assessment (EFA) and effective management require the capacity to predict the future ecological condition of a river ecosystem after its flow regime has been altered. Proactive (river protection) methods aim to predict ecological consequences after proposed dams are constructed and formerly “natural” flow regimes are changed in ways that reflect dam characteristics...

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15. Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystems and Threats

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pp. 213-228

...All water that occurs beneath the earth’s surface can be termed “subsurface” (or underground) water. Precipitation, flowing surface water, ice, wind, and tectonic forces create opportunities for surface water to penetrate into underground materials. This downward movement of water (termed “groundwater recharge...

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16. Sustaining Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystems

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pp. 229-242

...Providing water for the environment is more than just allocating water for the maintenance of surface water flows in rivers. It must also consider the water regimes that maintain terrestrial, riparian, wetland, and stygian (groundwater-inhabiting organisms) systems that require groundwater for their survival (Murray et al. 2003). The global literature on environmental flow methods...

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17. Wetlands, Threats, and Water Requirements

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pp. 243-258

...Wetlands are areas where standing water covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for some part of the year (Mitsch and Gosselink 2007). Many different types have been recognized, their character depending on climatic and hydrogeomorphic setting, inundation regime, groundwater, water chemistry, and associated factors. The wetland classification scheme proposed...

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18. Estuaries, Threats, and Flow Requirements

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pp. 259-272

...An estuary is a wide lower course of a river where the freshwater flow meets and is influenced by ocean tides, or it can be visualized as an arm of the sea extending inland to meet the mouth of a river (Maser and Sedell 1994). There are many definitions of estuaries. Fairbridge (1980) defines an estuary as “an inlet of the sea reaching into a river valley as far as the upper limit of tidal rise, usually being divisible into three sectors: (a) a marine or lower estuary, in free connection...

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19. Setting Limits to Hydrologic Alteration

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pp. 273-286

...If indeed the world has now entered the Anthropocene — a new epoch where humans dominate the biosphere and largely determine environmental conditions (Zalasiewicz et al. 2008) — then humans hold the keys to future environmental quality and global prosperity. There is growing agreement that because the risks to freshwater resources and ecosystems are so enormous, a new vision and action agenda for freshwater management should rank foremost among global...

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20. Implementing and Monitoring Environmental Flows

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pp. 287-298

...Converting the recommendations from environmental flow assessments into management actions that produce the desired river flow regime has lagged behind the actual assessment process in most countries (Le Quesne et al. 2010). Two major forms of regulatory process may be involved in the provision of an environmental flow regime: restrictive and active (Acreman and Ferguson 2010). Restrictive...

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21. Legislation and Policy

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pp. 299-310

...Intense interest in the concept and practice of environmental flows at national and international levels has generated significant debate about how to embed environmental water allocations into legislation, policy, and governance (Naiman et al. 2002; Dyson et al. 2003). The Brisbane Declaration (2007; see this book’s appendix) envisions that...

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22. Adapting to Climate Change

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pp. 311-322

...The decadal drought, floods, cyclones, and firestorms in Australia, flooding and mudslides in Brazil, volcanic activity in Indonesia, earthquakes in New Zealand and Japan, extensive intense snowfalls in North America — the list of catastrophic events goes on, bringing into sharp focus the dynamic nature of planet Earth. People are seeking explanations for what appears to be an increase in...

Appendix: The Brisbane Declaration (2007)

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pp. 323-328

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Literature Cited

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pp. 329-382

Acreman MC, Dunbar MJ (2004). Defining environmental flow require-ments: a review. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 8: 8six.taboldstyle1 – 87six.taboldstyle.Acreman MC, Ferguson AJD (2010). Environmental flows and the European Aladin Nv, Williams WD (1993). Recent changes in the biota of the Aral Sea, Central Asia. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für theoretische und ...

Index

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pp. 383-406

Further Reading

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pp. 407-407