Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

This book began as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Rochester, which generously supported my research overseas. Two scholars in particular deserve my deepest thanks. William J. McGrath drew often from his sophisticated understanding of intellectual history to help me refine my approach to the topic I had chosen. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

If cancer is arguably the disease of the twentieth century, then it is equally arguable that mental illness was the disease of the nineteenth century. Or so thought the French republican deputy Leon Gambetta. Speaking before the Corps législatif on 21 March 1870, Gambetta claimed that public concern ...

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1. The State of Psychiatric Practice and Knowledge in the Nineteenth Century

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pp. 11-37

In its efforts to improve its professional standing in the early nineteenth century, French psychiatry encountered two major difficulties. In 1838 the French state gave alienists important privileges to treat the insane in public asylums. Yet at roughly the same time, the growing failure of psychiatrists to cure their patients ...

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2. François Leuret and Medical Opposition to Moral Treatment, 1835–1850

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pp. 38-53

The gaps in French psychiatric knowledge at midcentury left alienists vulnerable to clerical allegations that medicine did not deserve exclusive rights to the institutional treatment and care of the insane. Particularly upsetting to many psychiatrists was that the Catholic Church's belief that insanity warranted moral therapies ...

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3. Jacques Moreau de Tours and the Crisis of Somaticism in French Psychiatry, 1840–1860

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pp. 54-75

The controversy over insanity's somatic pathology did more than cast doubt on psychiatry's claim that it alone was qualified to treat mental diseases. If alienists could not identify lesions for each type of mental disturbance, they were unjustified in contending that only doctors were capable of diagnosing insanity. ...

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4. Alienism and the Psychiatric Search for a Professional Identity: The Société médico-psychologique, 1840–1870

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pp. 76-92

The psychiatric move toward hereditarianism was caused by other factors than simply those relating to the treatment and diagnosis of insanity. Sociopolitical disorder affected the efforts of the alienists of the Annales médico-psychologiques to organize a learned society of psychiatrists between 1843 and 1852. ...

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5. French Alienism and Antipsychiatry, 1860–1900

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pp. 93-115

Just when it seemed that the Société médico-psychologique's policy of accommodation would solve psychiatry's political problems, mental medicine was confronted with an antipsychiatric campaign launched by the French press after censorship laws were relaxed in 1861. ...

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6. Hereditarianism, the Clinic, and Psychiatric Practice in Nineteenth-Century France

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pp. 116-143

By the early years of the Third Republic the psychiatric profession in France had reason to feel anxious and defensive about its social status. Antipsychiatric sentiment was running high, fanned by journalistic allegations of wrongful confinement and medical ignorance and incompetence. ...

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7. Science, Politics, and Psychiatric Hereditarianism in the Nineteenth Century

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pp. 144-161

With the advent of hereditarianism in the i86os, alienists began the intellectual struggle to vindicate themselves as medically useful asylum physicians. Yet alienists longed to be recognized not just as institutional "moral entrepreneurs" but also as positivist scientists. ...

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Conclusion: The Social History of Psychiatric Knowledge

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pp. 162-172

Almost as soon as its popularity peaked in the 18905, the theory of mental degeneracy began to decline. During the heyday of degeneration theory there had never been a shortage of skeptics willing to point out the inconsistencies and imprecision of hereditary degeneracy as a clinical concept, ...

Notes

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pp. 173-212

Index

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pp. 213-217