Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-1

TItle Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 2-7

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-9

List of Illustrations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

List of Boxes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xii

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-15

This book was written on the shoulders of friends — those who shared their own views of friendship through conversations and deeds and especially those who kindly waded through early versions of the manuscript and provided valuable suggestions for improving it. For those few hearty souls who read the entire manuscript, I owe a great debt of gratitude. Kenny ...

read more

Introduction: The Adaptive Significance of Friendship

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-16

In the late spring of 1876, nearly seventeen years after his first publication of On the Origin of Species and following decades of careful description of the natural world, Charles Darwin sat down to write a sketch of his life. He devoted only sixty pages to the topic, detailing his early encounters with the natural world, his compulsive beetle collecting, his lackluster attempt ...

read more

1. An Outline of Friendship

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 17-43

In the highlands of Papua New Guinea, a Wandeki man shouts this phrase as an old friend comes to visit. At first glance, the expression is startling, invoking gory images of cannibalism. Even in islands not far from New Guinea, the promise of eating someone’s body parts is a sign of anger and aggression. However, in the presence of a Wandeki friend, the phrase ...

read more

2. Friendships across Cultures

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 44-75

In 1848, the Russian priest Andrej Argentov moved with his wife and a maidservant to start a small church on Siberia’s arctic coast — to win the souls of nomadic Chukchee reindeer herders who lived in the region. During one of Argentov’s first forays into Chukchee territory, a herder named Ata’to asked him to establish a ritual friendship. At that time, ...

read more

3. Friendship and Kinship

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 76-104

In different places and times, the word friend and its linguistic relatives have displayed remarkable flexibility in meaning. In the quote above, an Irish villager uses friend in two very different ways to explain his relationship with a biologically unrelated associate. By stating, “he’s more a friend,” the villager follows the standard, English sense of a non-kin ...

read more

4. Sex, Romance, and Friendship

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 105-120

Intensely close relationships often inspire speculation about sex.1 Consider the more than one hundred sonnets that Shakespeare devoted to a young man he named “fair youth.” In these sonnets, Shakespeare writes roman-tically of sweet love and how the youth’s beauty awakes and delights his heart. Although these verses lack the explicit sexual references of some ...

read more

5. Friendship: Childhood to Adulthood

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 121-145

The road from first meeting to friendship is not always easy. Along the way, one must often deal with conflicting loyalties, cope with rejections and breakups, avoid exploitation, and figure out just what one’s friends expect of the friendship.1 Overcoming these challenges requires a number of truly remarkable social skills. Among other things, one must be able to ...

read more

6. The Development of Friendships

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 146-167

Think of your closest friends and how long you have known them. You may remember some from early childhood and others from high school or college. It is unlikely that you met any for the first time yesterday. Now pick one of these friends and try to identify the precise moment in time when your friendship became close. For some friendships it may be ...

read more

7. Friendship, Culture, and Ecology

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 168-193

Although most people around the world agree that it is important to help friends, the passenger’s dilemma tests one’s commitment to the proposition. Does the unknown pedestrian have a right to truthful testimony? Is it immoral to lie under oath to protect a friend? Similar ethical dilemmas arise frequently in human societies, each with unique norms for dealing ...

read more

8. Playing with Friends

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 194-211

When Emerson wrote these lines, he was musing about what he called the paradox of friendship — that a good friend lives in a separate body but can also feel like a reflection of one’s own self. This is certainly one of the most intriguing qualities of close friends, but Emerson could have justified his claim of friendship’s masterpiece in several ways. Friendships are ...

read more

Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 212-220

In this passage, Dr. Aziz expresses indignation at his English friend’s materialistic approach to relationships. According to Aziz, Fielding pays too much attention to the observables — what is said and what is done — and not enough to what motivates people’s behaviors. Aziz’s reaction to Fielding’s materialism is shared by many who first come across economic ...

Appendix A: Ethnographic Data and Coding

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 221-232

Appendix B: Mathematical Models for Chapter 8

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 233-240

Appendix C: D-Statistics for Studies Cited

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 241-260

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 261-294

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 295-370

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 371-383

Production Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 384-399