Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. 1-7

Table of Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

When people began to domesticate plants and animals around 11,000 years ago, they unwittingly unleashed powerful forces of human population growth, the effects of which we are still dealing with today. The first people to do so, though, were the village dwellers of the early Neolithic, ...

Contributors

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pp. xi-xii

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Chapter 1: Emergence and Collapse of Early Villages in the Central Mesa Verde: An Introduction

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pp. 1-14

Two hundred and forty years after the last Pueblo people left Colorado, Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro—or maybe it was Quetzalcoatl—stepped onto the shores of Veracruz. Arriving at the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan less than seven months later, the Spanish had no trouble recognizing kings and slaves, temples and markets, gods and warriors, ...

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Chapter 2: The Study Area and the Ancestral Pueblo Occupation

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pp. 15-40

Most of the chapters in this book present models of the ancient environment and society of the central Mesa Verde region. To a greater or lesser extent, all these models seek to account for aspects of the actual history of ancestral Pueblo settlement in this region. The archaeology of the region has been studied intensively for more than a century, ...

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Chapter 3: Low-Frequency Climate in the Mesa Verde Region: Beef Pasture Revisited

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pp. 41-58

Around A.D. 600, early farmers set deep roots in the high desert country of the Mesa Verde region, dry-farming the loamy canyon floors and mesa tops and building hamlets and villages that, over time, culminated in an intricate array of settlement clusters inhabited by tens of thousands of people. ...

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Chapter 4: Simulation Model Overview

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pp. 59-72

There is no substitute for a map if you are going someplace you have never been before. Most archaeologists have little or no experience with simulation; in this chapter we provide “maps” to the collection of Swarm code that constitutes the Village simulation model in the form of flowcharts summarizing the main features of the simulation. ...

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Chapter 5: Modeling Paleohydrological System Structure and Function

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pp. 73-84

Over the seven centuries of prehispanic occupation, the settlement and subsistence strategies of the Pueblo inhabitants of the central Mesa Verde region (Figure 1.1) underwent several well-documented transformations, including two cycles of population aggregation and disaggregation ...

Color plates

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pp. 98-113

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Chapter 6: Modeling Agricultural Productivity and Farming Effort

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pp. 85-112

To model subsistence in the central Mesa Verde region from A.D. 600 through 1300 is— largely—to model maize production. Stable isotope studies indicate a heavy reliance on maize by both the eastern Basketmakers (of southwestern Colorado) and the western Basketmakers (of northeastern Arizona and southeastern Utah) ...

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Chapter 7: Modeling Plant and Animal Productivity and Fuel Use

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pp. 113-128

The success of our modeling efforts depends on establishing plausible long-term productivity estimates for relevant aspects of the biotic environment across the Village Ecodynamics Project (VEP) study area for the seven centuries on which we are focusing. ...

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Chapter 8: Supply, Demand, Return Rates, And Resource Depression: Hunting in the Village Ecodynamics World

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pp. 129-144

Many excellent studies of hunting in small-scale agricultural societies are available in the archaeological and zooarchaeological literature, including several (e.g., Muir and Driver 2002) for the portion of the U.S. Southwest on which this chapter focuses. ...

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Chapter 9: How Hunting Changes the Vep World, and how the Vep World Changes Hunting

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pp. 145-152

This chapter emphasizes those results from running Village, the simulation of the Village Ecodynamics Project (VEP), that help us understand how the agents behave as we vary parameters that directly affect their hunting, as described in Chapter 8. ...

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Chapter 10: Exercising the Model: Assessing Changes in Settlement Location and Efficiency

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pp. 153-164

So far we have emphasized how the Village model was constructed, how resources are produced and consumed, and how our parameter choices affect simulated population sizes and time allocations over the course of the occupation. ...

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Chapter 11: Simulating Household Exchange with Cultural Algorithms

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pp. 165-174

So far in this book we have summarized key points about the archaeological record in the Village Ecodynamics Project I (VEP I) study area (Chapter 2) and presented an overview of how the Village simulation works (Chapter 4), with special attention to how we model the supply and use of various resources (Chapters 5 through 9) ...

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Chapter 12: Tool-Stone Procurement in the Mesa Verde Core Region Through Time

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pp. 175-196

The village ecodynamics project (VEP) was designed to integrate a computer simulation with archaeological analyses to better understand the long-term interaction between humans and their environment and to clarify general evolutionary processes. One goal of these integrated studies was to better understand settlement patterns, ...

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Chapter 13: Population Dynamics and Warfare in the Central Mesa Verde Region

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pp. 197-218

The village simulation (Chapter 4, this book) is a model of functional regularity. Agents never so much as argue with each other. To bash someone on the head, or steal a wife or some maize, is quite literally unthinkable. ...

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Chapter 14: Characterizing Community-Center (Village) Formation in the Vep Study Area, A.D. 600-1280

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pp. 219-246

Large villages and associated civic architecture played instrumental roles in structuring social life throughout the ancestral Pueblo occupation of the northern San Juan region (Brown et al. 2008; Cattanach 1980; Glowacki 2010; Hurst and Till 2002; Lipe and Ortman 2000; Lipe and Varien 1999a; Mc Kenna and Toll 1992; Nordby 2001; Toll 1993; Varien 1999a; Varien et al. 2007). ...

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Chapter 15: The Rise and Collapse of Villages in the Central Mesa Verde Region

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pp. 247-262

The village ecodynamics project (VEP) is ambitious in scope and innovative in design. Our work continues in parallel with that of many other archaeologists; it is hard to think of this book as a conclusion. This chapter emphasizes our provisional results on two topics: (1) what caused the ebb and flow of population into and out of our study area, ...

Appendix A

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pp. 263-274

Appendix B

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pp. 275-288

Bibliography

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pp. 289-324

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 325-326

Index

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pp. 327-344