Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

...Work on this project began as long ago as the late 1980s, in various graduate seminars and an undergraduate course (called Music in Fin-de-Siècle Europe) taught at Columbia University. It continued during a sabbatical year in Germany in 1990–91 under the auspices of the Alexander von Humboldt- Stiftung, and reached near-fulfillment during a rewarding year spent as a Fellow at the Center for Scholars...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

...is on the years between 1880 and 1920, a period extending roughly between the later years and death of Richard Wagner (1883), the most influential figure in any of the arts at the time, and the end ofWorld War I (1918), which marked a major turning point in European culture. Although the later phase of German modernism, during the Weimar Republic and the years leading up to World War II, has received considerable attention as a coherent or at...

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1 Ambivalent Modernism: Perspectives from the 1870s and 1880s

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pp. 7-35

...rather a loose “German Confederation” of thirty-eight states that had been created in 1815, at the Congress of Vienna. The two largest and strongest parts of the Confederation were Austria and Prussia, who dominated the political and cultural stage for most of the century and were frequently in conflict. When he was appointed prime minister of Prussia in 1862, Bismarck hoped to exclude Austria...

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2 German Naturalism

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pp. 36-87

...through the Bayreuth Festspielhaus in 1882, newer trends were on the rise in Germany. Naturalism was the first self-conscious, programmatic movement of German modernism. It had its beginnings around 1880, primarily in two urban centers, Berlin and Munich, and began to decline by the mid- 1890s. German naturalism drew much of its inspiration from France, specifically from the realism of Courbet, Flaubert...

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3 Convergences: Music and the Visual Arts

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pp. 88-137

...occupied writers, thinkers, and composers in the years around 1900. In the end, many realized that music and naturalism were perhaps not well suited for each other, largely because of the prevailing idea—very hard to shake oª, at least in German-speaking realms—that music was in essence abstract, absolute, nonreferential, metaphysical, and thus ultimately not connected with the “real world.” These qualities had...

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4 Bach, Regeneration, and Historicist Modernism

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pp. 138-185

...were “convergent” with many aspects of Kandinsky’s paintings. However much they appealed to Kandinsky and his circle, the intense polyphony, asymmetrical phrase structures, and dissonant chords made the works hard for the general public in Austria and Germany to swallow. As is well known, Schoenberg’s mature compositions provoked...

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5 Ironic Germans

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pp. 186-213

...At the end of chapter 4, I introduced the term “irony” to characterize, at least in part, Mahler’s distanced but affectionately humorous relationship to Bach in the finale of the Fifth Symphony. Irony becomes a key strategy for a number of Austro-German modernists in the years around 1900, especially in their attitude to music of the remote or immediate past. I shall return to Mahler at the end of this...

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6 “Dancing in Chains”: Strauss, Hofmannsthal, Pfitzner, and Their Musical Pasts

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pp. 214-256

...classicism in which creative artists would, like the ancient Greeks, impose fetters upon themselves—“make things look diffcult”—at the same time as giving the illusion of spontaneity and lack of effort. He called this practice “dancing in chains.” Composers around 1900, as we have seen, readily put themselves in historical fetters. Reger, Busoni, and Mahler took on Bachian chains, for diªerent reasons, in diªerent ways, and to very different effects. In each case, however...

Notes

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pp. 257-292

Bibliography

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pp. 293-308

Index

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pp. 309-322