Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xxii

...The division of labor represents two of the most fundamental characteristics that mark human life off from that of other animals—the capacity to create tools that aid in the performance of specialized tasks, and the capacity to cooperate with others in the performance of complementary tasks that yield a joint product. It...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxiii-xxiv

...Much of this book was prepared under predoctoral grants from the United States Public Health Service No. HS 00013, and the Commonwealth Foundation Program in Law, Science and Medicine at Yale Law School. Support provided by DHHS grant No. RR07143, and the Provost's Research and Development...

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-14

...This century has witnessed an explosion of specialties in the health care field. When the United States entered World War I, one medical specialty was recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA). A handful of other specialties were organized by the 1930s but attracted only 17 percent of all physicians to full-time specialty practice. At present, fifty-two specialties are...

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2. The Bases for Specialization,1890-1917

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pp. 15-37

...Throughout most of the nineteenth century the regular medical profession was hard pressed by competition from medical sects and by internal competition resulting from an "oversupply" of practitioners. The medical sects were especially critical of the "heroic" medicine predominant in the first half of the century which often relied on large doses of drugs and methods such as...

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3. War and the Organization of Work, 1917-1920

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pp. 38-60

...Before World War I disability was not considered a medical or a social problem in America. The new "scientific" medical profession had extended its domain within the constraints provided by the fee-for-service market. Disabled people, who were generally unable to pay for lengthy professionalized care, were thus excluded from the services of the new medicine...

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4. Foundations for a Division of Labor, 1920-1941

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pp. 61-85

...The nineteenth-century medical market had been competitive and sectarian. In the twentieth century, the regular medical profession's gain of exclusive rights to certain tasks eliminated many medical sects and healers. Those nonphysician practitioners who remained had their services legally delimited, although osteopaths and chiropractors were still competitors. While the...

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5.The Rediscovery of Rehabilitation, 1941-1950

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pp. 86-122

...Rehabilitation medicine's first fifty years had two phases. In the first and generally ignored phase, marginal medical practitioners organized around the use of electrical devices to treat acute diseases. The second phase covered the institutionalization of physical therapy from the beginning of World War I to the start of World War II. It included recognition by the military during the...

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6. The Redivision of Labor,1950-1980

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pp. 123-158

...Until the 1950s the allied occupations accepted their subordination to medicine because they perceived this relationship as beneficial and necessary. With the professionalization of groups such as chiropractors, and with the proliferation of new "therapy" workers such as corrective therapists, physical therapists wanted more...

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Epilogue

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pp. 159-170

...To accept the natural growth model, we would have to accept that the present structure and domain of rehabilitation medicine could not have been otherwise. But the rehabilitation field could have proceeded along different lines at certain historically critical points...

Appendixes

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pp. 171-176

Notes

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pp. 177-206

Index

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pp. 207-216