Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-1

Title Page, Other Works in the Series, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 2-9

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xii

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-xiv

This is the second of a three-volume study of the Hellenistic settlements. The first, The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor, dealt with foundations in those regions. The present volume focuses on the Hellenistic settlements of Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa. The third...

read more

The Scholarship and the Sources

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-20

Many of the historical investigations and reference works mentioned in The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor deal with (parts of ) the area under discussion in this volume.1 I will not, therefore, note them here. In addition, for particular regions under investigation in this volume,...

read more

A Geographic Overview

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 21-70

For the Greeks and Macedonians of the fourth century and the Hellenistic period the Tauros Mountains constituted a major frontier, separating Asia Minor from Syria. Numerous references to “this side of the Tauros” and “beyond the Tauros” in the literary and epigraphic sources make this quite clear....

read more

I. NORTHERN SYRIA

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 71-139

Among the towns in Syria that Appian (Syr. 57) mentions as a foundation of Seleukos I Nikator is Achaia. The name, of course, recalls the region in Greece.1 There are no other firm attestations for this town. We do not know exactly where Achaia was located....

read more

II. CHALCIDICE

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 141-146

Appian (Syr. 57) included Chalkis among the settlements he ascribed to Seleukos I.1 The reference is undoubtedly to Chalkis in Chalcidice rather than CHALKIS under Libanos; the latter was located in a region that was never under the effective control of Seleukos I.2 In any event, in little-noticed...

read more

III. CYRRHESTICE AND COMMAGENE

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 147-197

Regarding the location, Tcherikover noted that Stephanos does not indicate whether the city was located in Syria or in Mesopotamia. I might add that although we do not know the exact location of Thapsakos, it is clear that it was located on the west bank of the Euphrates.2 For that reason, I tentatively...

read more

IV. PHOENICIA

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 199-222

The Itinerarium Burdigalense 584.4 (ed. Cuntz), which dates to 333 a.d., is the only extant source for Alexandroschene. It was located on the coast, 12 miles south of Tyre. There is no evidence that connects Alexandroschene to the Macedonian king.1...

read more

V. SOUTHERN SYRIA

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 223-303

The Tabula Peutingeriana (IX.2) records an Aenos on the road from Bostra to Damascus; it was 37 miles north of Kanatha (modern Kanawat) and 26 miles south of Damascus. Ain in Arabic means “spring or source”; thus the Greek toponym could reflect the Hellenization of a native word. Alternatively,...

read more

VI. THE RED SEA BASIN AND INDIAN OCEAN

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 305-343

In the course of enumerating towns and places in Arabia and the region of the Red Sea Pliny (NH 6.159) mentions Ampelome (or, more probably, Ampelone), a town that he says was a Milesian colony. W.W. Tarn objected that it was highly unlikely Miletos would have founded a colony in the Red Sea...

read more

VII. EGYPT

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 345-352

Two papyri acquired by the University of Trier and published in 1997 revealed the existence of a previously unknown city, Euergetis.1 The papyri are, respectively, the rough and final drafts of a document dated to 132 b.c. that is concerned with the grant of a stathmos to Tanoupis, daughter of Tpheophis...

read more

VIII. ALEXANDREIA NEAR EGYPT

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 353-381

Alexander the Great founded Alexandreia in 331 B.C.1 The site he chose was located approximately 75 kilometers northwest of Naukratis, at the western side of the Nile Delta, between Lake Mareotis and the Mediterranean.2 According to Arrian, “it struck him that the position was admirable for founding...

read more

IX. CYRENAICA

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 383-396

In the course of his description of the events of 322 B.C., Diodorus (18.19.4) mentions the harbor of Cyrene (but does not refer to it as Apollonia); Arrian (Ta met’ Alex. 1.18 = FGrH 156 F9) also refers to the harbor of Cyrene.4 It is doubtful if there was a mint at Apollonia.5 Apollonia is not...

APPENDICES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 397-413

read more

I. FOUNDERS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 399-402

In addition, there are a number of towns in Syria and Egypt that had a tradition (often from the Roman period or later) of Alexander as the founder or progenitor or that have been attributed to Alexander by modern scholars (see the discussion in Appendix II and the appropriate entry). These include...

read more

II. SETTLEMENTS ATTRIBUTED TO ALEXANDER IN SYRIA, PHOENICIA, AND EGYPT

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 403-406

The situation regarding settlements in Syria and Phoenicia attributed to Alexander is similar to that in Asia Minor: there are numerous claims, both in (late) antiquity and in modern times, but—except for Alexandreia near Egypt and Samareia—very little confirmatory evidence. Consult the appropriate...

read more

III. GREEK AND MACEDONIAN TOPONYMS THAT REAPPEAR IN SYRIA AND PHOENICIA

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 407-408

Listed below are some of the names of European towns, regions, or rivers that may have been given to cults, regions, rivers, or Hellenistic settlements in (northern and southern) Syria and Phoenicia. Note that in a few cases, for example, Megara, the name of the settlement may have resulted from...

read more

IV. “ALEXANDRIA AD AEGYPTUM”

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 409-423

The Romans distinguished clearly between Alexandreia and Egypt in official documents.1 And the term “Alexandria ad Aegyptum” itself is obviously Roman. Nevertheless, in the Hellenistic period we also encounter the distinction between Alexandreia and Egypt (the chora) from as early as the third...

read more

V. REFOUNDATIONS AND NEW FOUNDATIONS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 424-425

Listed below are settlements for which there is evidence or some indication of their being either refoundations or new foundations (see also the brief discussion in my Settlements in Europe, 428). In reviewing this list it is important to keep in mind that for many settlements there is no extant evidence...

VI. FOUNDATIONS AT OR NEAR MAJOR RELIGIOUS CENTERS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 426-441

VII. CIVIC INSTITUTIONS AND OFFICES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 427-430

read more

VIII. ETHNICS AND TOPONYMS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 431-436

The appended list is not exhaustive. It gives the main ethnics (and certain toponymic forms) attested for the settlements listed in this volume. Note that abbreviations (on coins) take many forms and that minor variations in spelling are quite common. For fuller information the reader should consult...

ABBREVIATIONS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 437-459

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 461-472

INDEX OF ANCIENT PLACE NAMES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 473-477

MAPS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 479-487

Production Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 488-503