Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. 2-5

Contents, Acknowledgments

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pp. v-viii

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1. Pattern and Process in Cultural Evolution: An Introduction

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pp. 1-18

The aim of this book is to demonstrate the potential for building a genuinely integrative evolutionary anthropology, in which evolutionary theory unites studies of the past and the present even though the nature of the evidence often requires different methodologies. ...

Understanding Cultural Transmission

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pp. 19-20

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2. Placing Archaeology within a Unified Science of Cultural Evolution

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pp. 21-32

Mesoudi, Whiten, and Laland (2006) have argued that culture can be studied within a single overarching evolutionary framework, just as different branches of biology are linked within a similar synthetic framework. Here we explore how archaeology fits into this framework, primarily as a means of studying macroevolutionary patterns. ...

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3. Human Communication as Niche Construction

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pp. 33-44

Cultural transmission is essentially the idea that beliefs and values are passed from generation to generation. The question I would like to address in this chapter is, How does this happen? In particular, what is the mechanism? In the absence of a deep understanding of the process by which people come to have similar ideas, ...

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4. Modes of Transmission and Material Culture Patterns in Craft Skills

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pp. 45-60

The transmission of knowledge, teaching and learning mechanisms, and the role of social learning in determining what is transmitted have been extensively considered in recent years. Studies have explored primate tool use and behavior (e.g., Boesch 1993; Boesch and Boesch 1993; Whiten 2000), ...

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5. Linking Pattern to Process in Cultural Evolution: Investigating Material Culture Diversity among the Northern Khanty of Northwest Siberia

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pp. 61-84

Increasing numbers of archaeologists and anthropologists are borrowing theory, models, and analytical methods from evolutionary biology in order to produce novel ways of understanding the emergence of cultural and linguistic diversity in different regions of the globe. ...

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6. Tangled Trees: Modeling Material Culture Evolution as Host–associate Cospeciation

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pp. 85-98

Evolutionary biologists have long been aware that species are connected in complex and reciprocal ecological as well as evolutionary relationships with one another. In evolutionary time, such linked relationships produce linked phylogenies that, at least to some degree, reflect the evolutionary history of all organisms involved (Page 2003a). ...

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7. The Evolution of Material Culture Diversity among Iranian Tribal Populations

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pp. 99-112

A. widely held view in anthropology suggests that the processes of cultural and biological evolution differ greatly. An early expression of this view can be found in Kroeber’s 1948 volume Anthropology: Race, Language, Culture, Psychology and Prehistory. ...

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8. Evolutionary Explanation and the Record of Interest: Using Evolutionary Archaeology and Dual Inheritance Theory to Explain the Archaeological Record

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pp. 113-132

In the first part of last century, anthropologists and archaeologists such as Kroeber, Childe, and others suggested that in some instances material culture similarities in space and time could be explained by the passing of information between individuals. The kernel of this simple idea—people copy those around them— ...

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9. Identifying Iron Production Lineages: A Case Study in Northwest Wales

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pp. 133-144

Iron production technology is inseparably linked to social, economic, and ecological changes of the last three millennia in the Old World and historic centuries in the New World. An evolutionary analysis of ironmaking behavior can add significant insight into these changes and serve as a platform for investigating theoretical problems ...

Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses

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pp. 145-146

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10. Quantitative Analysis of Macroevolutionary Patterning in Technological Evolution: Bicycle Design from 1800 to 2000

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pp. 147-162

A recurring pattern in biological evolution is that increases in diversity (adaptive radiation) proceed by early diversification at higher taxonomic levels, followed by later diversification at lower taxonomic levels. Kauffman (1995, 205–206) has argued that this macroevolutionary pattern results from the increased cost of exploring distant locations ...

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11. Innovation Diffusion and Traveling Waves

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pp. 163-174

In this chapter, I will examine the dynamics of innovation diffusion, to illustrate the difficulty of using changing frequency distributions to diagnose a particular social learning process. I begin by discussing an influential model of new product diffusion taken from the marketing science literature (Bass 1969). ...

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12. Explaining Global Patterns in Lower Paleolithic Technology: Simulations of Hominin Dispersal and Cultural Transmission Using Stepping Out

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pp. 175-190

The archaeological evidence from the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic does not easily lend itself to fine-grained quantitative models of cultural transmission, even though the processes of social learning can readily be appreciated as important for gaining an understanding of variability in stone tool technology (Mithen 1994, 1999; Shennan and Steele 1999). ...

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13. Population History and the Evolution of Mesolithic Arrowhead Technology in South Scandinavia

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pp. 191-202

Theories of cultural evolution have developed rapidly in recent years, but the number of archaeological case studies that make use of these ideas to develop and test hypotheses remains small. This chapter addresses the specific evolutionary mechanisms affecting technological stability and change in projectile point technology in data-rich Mesolithic southern Scandinavia, ...

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14. Experimentation and Innovation in the Archaeological Record: A Case Study in Technological Evolution from Kodiak, Alaska

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pp. 203-220

This chapter explores a dimension of technological change at the heart of archaeological inquiry. We ask the question “How did changes arise in the archaeological past?” and focus our efforts on an attempt to develop test implications for the risk-innovation model of technological evolution proposed by Fitzhugh (2001). ...

Social Evolution

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15. Mind the Bonding Gap: Constraints on the Evolution of Hominin Societies

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pp. 223-234

Modern humans live in large complex societies, and these must have evolved over time from more conventional primate-like social groups. This is not, however, a straightforward issue: rather, I shall argue here that the nature of bonding in primate societies is such that there are natural glass ceilings on the size and structure of primate social systems, ...

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16. Testing Functional Hypotheses about Cross-Cultural Variation: A Maximum-likelihood Comparative Analysis of Indo-European Marriage Practices

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pp. 235-250

Behavioral ecology is the branch of biology dealing with the study of animal behavioral variation within and across taxa; it addresses questions about the function of behavior, focusing on its survival value in relation to the environment (Tinbergen’s [1963] “why” questions; Krebs and Davies 1993, 382). ...

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17. Parent–Offspring Conflict in Marriage: Implications for Social Evolution and Material Culture among the Ju/’Hoansi Bushmen

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pp. 251-264

In 1875, T. Smiles wrote, “‘Marriage is a lottery?’ Well, it may be so but only if we abjure all the teachings of prudence.” In anthropology, prudence has been attributed to both biological preferences and cultural conventions. Biological approaches to mate choice emphasize factors that may be indicators of reproductive potential ...

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18. Prestige Goods and the Formation of Political Hierarchy: A Costly Signaling Model

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pp. 265-276

Graham Clark (1986, 82) observes that the particular “hierarchies of esteem” of materials considered to be precious vary—sometimes widely—by culture, “yet the transmission of precious substances in the form of jewelry or other objects of display has at all times and most notably during the last five millennia ...

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19. Population and Warfare: A Test of the Turchin Model in Pueblo Societies

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pp. 277-296

Ecologist peter Turchin and anthropologist Andrey Korotayev (2006) propose that population size and incidence of internal warfare or sociopolitical instability exhibit a deterministic relationship in prestate societies. Important to their thesis is that both population size and incidence of instability are, and must be treated as, dynamic variables: ...

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20. An Ecological Model for the Emergence of Institutionalized Social Hierarchies on California’s Northern Channel Islands

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pp. 297-314

One of the central questions in anthropological archaeology is how and why institutionalized social hierarchies evident in ranked societies and chiefdoms developed independently in multiple locations around the world during the Holocene (Feinman and Manzanilla 2000; Flannery 1998). ...

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21. Population, Sociopolitical Simplification, and Cultural Evolution of Levantine Neolithic Villages

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pp. 315-328

How does one describe and model the tempo and underlying causes of cultural change? This represents one of the central questions for studies of cultural evolution. Any attempt to address it faces two interrelated challenges. First, researchers need to develop interpretive models that incorporate both external and internal causes for the direction and tempo of cultural change. ...

List of Contributors /

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pp. 329-330

Index /

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pp. 331-341

Production Notes

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pp. 351-353