Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. ii-v

Table of Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

Tables

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pp. xi-xi

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xx

My first exposure to the world explored in this book was in a 1976 graduate seminar in what was then called “classical Maya,” taught by Norman McQuown at the University of Chicago. Mac introduced us to the colonial dictionaries and grammars and taught us to read the alphabetic Maya texts aloud, paying very close attention to the grammar. At the time I was preparing for doctoral research in ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxiii

If a book like this can be said to have a beginning, it is in the contributions of others that it began. As a graduate student and then faculty member at the University of Chicago, Bernard Cohn, John Comaroff, Paul Friedrich, Nancy Munn, Michael Silverstein, Terry Turner, and especially Norman A. McQuown had a formative impact on my thinking about language and history. From 1980 to ...

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-22

The Spanish conquest of Yucatán rested on two major columns, military subjugation and the so-called conquista pacífica ‘peaceful conquest’. The military conquest was carried out by a relatively small number of soldiers, armed with swords, armor, muskets, horses, and dogs, and assisted by their indigenous allies. After decades of advances, setbacks, and regroupings, it came to an end, at least ...

PART I: THE SCOPE OF REDUCCIÓN

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pp. 23-23

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2. Perpetual Reducción in a Land of Frontiers

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pp. 25-58

The Maya were highly organized before the arrival of the Spanish — especially prior to but also after the demise of the Mayapán confederacy in the mid-thirteenth century. Given the accumulated experience of the Spanish and the missionaries in New Spain and elsewhere and given what they found in Yucatán, there is no question that they recognized that the Maya were already living in ...

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3. To Make Themselves New Men

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pp. 59-84

This chapter moves from the politico-religious landscape of the province to the pueblos reducidos, where the conversions of conduct and language were actually played out. Whatever impact doctrinal language and practice would have on the Indios, it would arise in the local fields of daily life. What were the structures of governance and fields of engagement that ordered towns and the conduct of their ...

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PART II: CONVERTING WORDS

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pp. 85-92

i have concentrated so far on the establishment and organization of the Provincia de San Josef de Yucatán, including the regional configuration, the guardianías, and the main forms of governance at the level of the pueblo reducido. At this point I begin to shift attention toward the role of language in this overall process. Each of the organizational forms described functioned ...

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4. From Field to Genre and Habitus

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pp. 93-117

The reducción was implemented in a complex field where several systems of governance interacted and where all these different spheres and the positions they entailed for individual people and groups corresponded with particular spaces and places. To describe the social context of reducción as a “field” is to underscore certain of its features. In each of the three spheres of space, conduct, and ...

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5. First Words

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pp. 118-156

Thus far I have drawn freely from the written works of religious authors, including Landa, López Medel, Toral, the Franciscan provincials, the bishops, Sánchez de Aguilar, Lizana, and Cogolludo. The works in question were all written in Spanish and directed to a Spanish-speaking audience, with only occasional and selective words or phrases cited in Maya. They were of several genres, including ...

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6. Commensuration

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pp. 157-203

In the previous chapter, I showed that the process of translating Spanish into Maya was a matter of commensuration: (1) the Spanish form and (2) its standard meaning were brought into alignment with (3) a Maya form and (4) its standard meaning. The two-column format of the dictionary abbreviates this four-part construct, with the matrix language (L1) on the left and the target language (L2) ...

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7. The Grammar of Reducción and the Art of Speaking

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pp. 204-241

Although dictionaries were initially related to artes, the two genres present many contrasts. The colonial Maya arte is a published work by a named author, endorsed in a series of approvals and licenses by named individuals at stated dates and places, and appearing under a title page stating the year and place it was made final by the press. An unpublished work may remain open-ended, whereas ...

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8. The Canonical Word [Includes Image Plates]

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pp. 242-276

The doctrinal works of the missionary lenguas — catechisms, a confessional manual, a manual for ministry to the sick, and sermons — constitute a substantial body of literature that has remained virtually unstudied beyond the scholarly introductions and notes of René Acuña (1996, 1998). To my knowledge, no scholars have attempted to compare the published doctrinal texts or to determine their ...

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PART III: INTO THE BREACH

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pp. 277-281

At this point we move away from the guardianía and the genres of Maya reducido produced by missionary authors, to enter the Maya sphere and examine works produced by indigenous authors. The transition is stark because the genres differ fundamentally in form, purpose, and, of course, authorship. Rather than dictionaries, grammars, and doctrinal texts, all of which are pedagogical and ...

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9. The Scripted Landscape

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pp. 283-314

The town and cabildo were not only sociopolitical entities but also spaces in which a variety of genres were produced by authors, scribes, and principals whose first language and primary identity were Maya. Written almost exclusively in Maya, these works display many of the properties seen in the missionary sector: the emergence of Maya reducido as a hybrid born of the fusion of Maya with ...

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10. Petitions as Prayers in the Field of Reducción

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pp. 315-337

Like the other notarial genres, collective letters and petitions are the products of cabildo members acting in their official capacities. Most show the full notarial apparatus: one or more scribes, a specified date and place of production, a ‘we’, ‘in front of them’, addressing a ‘you’. Whereas the major land documents performatively create places through the actions of the principals, the petitions describe ...

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11. Cross Talk in the Books of Chilam Balam

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pp. 338-364

The notarial documentation clearly demonstrates that at least some Maya people in the pueblos learned to write and produced works in alphabetic script as early as the 1550s. The genres examined in the previous two chapters are all part of the governance of the pueblos reducidos. It is perhaps unsurprising that the language in which they are cast is itself Maya reducido, with traces of doctrinal Maya. in ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 365-371

The processes of conversion explored in this book had a penumbra of effects, including the making of modern Maya. Religion would become a cauldron of social change throughout the colonial and modern periods. To show the legacy of reducción in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries would require another book-length study. A few provocative examples will ...

Notes

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pp. 373-401

References Cited

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pp. 403-414

Index

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pp. 415-439

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About the Author

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pp. 441-441

William F. Hanks is Professor of Anthropology, Berkeley Distinguished Chair in Linguistic Anthropology, and Affiliated Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. Concurrently, at the University of Texas at Austin, he is Professor ...