Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Introduction: Between Guantánamo and GTMO

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pp. 1-18

I met Robert Duncan in Havana at a Cuba-Jamaica World Cup soccer qualifying match in 2001. I was conducting research on exchanges between Cuba and Jamaica in the 1950s and 1960s, and the Jamaican Embassy staff had invited me to the game. At halftime, I was introduced to Robert, an older Cuban man who spoke perfect English with a Jamaican accent. ...

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Prologue: Regional Politics, 1898, and the Platt Amendment

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pp. 19-28

In 1952 the GTMO base commander wrote, “The naval base is essentially U.S. territory, under the complete jurisdiction and control of the United States. There is no other area like it in Cuba—perhaps not in the world. In a word, it is unique, and therefore requires unique treatment.”1 ...

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1. The Case of Kid Chicle: Military Expansion and Labor Competition, 1939–1945

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pp. 29-60

In December 1940, Lino Rodríguez Grenot decided to try his luck on the base. A boxer known as “Kid Chicle,” Rodríguez was twenty-seven years old, black, and unemployed. Born in Santiago de Cuba, he lived a marginal existence in Guantánamo. He supported himself by boxing whenever he could, but he was just as likely to be selling lottery tickets and trinkets in the streets. ...

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2. “We Are Real Democrats”: Legal Debates and Cold War Unionism before Castro, 1940–1954

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pp. 61-99

Lorenzo Salomón Deer was twenty-four years old and a first generation, Cuban-born, West Indian descendant. In 1951 he found a job on the base in the Navy Exchange, also known as the tiendacita, which sold personal items, such as cigarettes, brushes, toothpaste, and hair gel. ...

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3. Good Neighbors, Good Revolutionaries, 1940–1958

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pp. 100-143

Rosa Johnson, a seventy-eight-year-old woman of West Indian descent, worked as a domestic servant for a U.S. naval officer’s family in the 1950s. She was born in rural Oriente, and her family worked in Central Miranda. When she was in her mid-thirties, she traveled to Guantánamo to seek work on the base. ...

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4. A “Ticklish” Position: Revolution, Loyalty, and Crisis, 1959–1964

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pp. 144-190

Victor Davis commuted between Guantánamo and the base for more than fifty years. His GTMO career began just after World War II, survived the Cuban revolution, and continued until his retirement in 2005. At several times during our conversation, he aptly used the term “ticklish” to describe workers’ sensitive positions.1 ...

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5. Contract Workers, Exiles, and Commuters: Neocolonial and Postmodern Labor Arrangements

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pp. 191-214

In the aftermath of the 1964 layoffs, the U.S. Navy hired 489 Jamaican contract workers.1 Through this process, GTMO inadvertently developed a new military model, which uncoupled the base and its geography. The majority of base workers would soon be migrants from developing countries with neocolonial ties to the United States. ...

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Epilogue: Post 9/11: Empire and Labor Redux

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pp. 215-228

In 2004, Angelo de la Cruz, a forty-six-year-old Filipino worker, made his living as a truck driver in Iraq. De la Cruz’s journey to Iraq followed the well-traveled path of many overseas workers. He had eight children, but he was unable to support his family in the Philippines. ...

Appendix: Guantánamo Civil Registry, 1921–1958

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pp. 229-234

Notes

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pp. 235-292

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 293-308

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 309-312

Acknowledgments are too often long, and I fear mine are the same. As I traveled back and forth between New Haven, New York, Washington DC, Fairhaven, MA, Havana, Santiago de Cuba, and Guantánamo, I acquired countless intellectual and personal debts. ...

Index

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pp. 313-326

Further Reading, Production Notes

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pp. 340-342