Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Quote

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pp. i-viii

Contents

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pp. ix-x

List of Illustrations

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xviii

...The occasion for investigating colonial culture and society in the Philippines under Spanish rule during the nineteenth century began predictably enough. I was teaching English writing and composition, as well as courses on literature and the humanities, at the University of the Philippines (Diliman) and trying in various ways to creatively illustrate how the critical refl ection and analysis of a text, historical event, cultural phenomenon, or artifact could...

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Introduction: Political Communities, “Common Sense,” and the Colonial State

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pp. 1-24

...European or U.S. merchants. All of them are involved in the daily activities of business, industry, or leisure. Indeed, if one examines each letter closely enough, the form of the letter may disappear entirely, leaving a partial and fragmented close-up of colonial society: a fi sherman sitting behind a barrel by the wharf; an old woman clutching her shawl, silently walking by...

Part 1: Shibboleths

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1. Imperial Christendom and the Colonial State

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pp. 27-63

...The program of fi scal reform constituted one of the two main projects of the colonial administration from this period onward; the other was military and consisted in the shoring up of Manila’s defenses as well as the subjugation of Muslim sultanates in the southern part of the archipelago to Spanish rule. With these two projects, Spain, under the Bourbon monarchy of Charles III, hoped to fashion an overseas colonial territory under Spanish rule...

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2. Special Laws and States of Exception

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pp. 64-94

...In examining the writings of colonial offi cials in the late eighteenth century, one cannot but feel compelled by the strength of their reasons for the ambitious program of administrative and economic reform. Indeed, on a larger level, historians tend to see Bourbon reform, particularly under the administration of Carlos III, as consisting of eminently pragmatic changes to the complex and often self-contradictory mandates of what others have called “conflicting...

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3. Customs/(Ka) Ugali(an)

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pp. 95-126

...In chapters 1 and 2, we saw how the implementation of Bourbon reforms and the later administration of Special Laws illustrate the paradoxical double movement of colonial modernity in the Philippines: toward, on the one hand, the state’s attempted management of native consent to colonial rule and, on the other, toward the investment of the pastorate with the duties and responsibilities...

Part 2: Projects

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4. Publics

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pp. 129-156

...The targeting of native consent as the basis of colonial rule in the archipelago and the attempt to reconcile this principle with the absorption of religious authority into the colonial state were part of the political rationality of Spain’s colonial policy concerning Special Laws and the political technology specifi c to it in the Philippines: the missionaries. As chapter 2 has shown, this resulted in a paradox. When the exceptional measures of ensuring colonial...

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5. Aesthetics

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pp. 157-183

...Throughout the nineteenth century, colonial reformers kept returning to the idea that the preservation of Spanish rule in the Philippines depended on a fundamental restructuring of colonial administration, which had to reconcile the solicitation and ramifi cation of native consent to colonial rule with the threat of native and mestizo dissidence. Given that the average term for the highest offi ce in the colonial government, that of captain-general...

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6. Values/Norms

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pp. 184-226

...In many respects, the achievement of prosperity among the colonial state engineers of the late eighteenth century (proyectistas, as they were derisively called later) appeared close at hand throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century. The 1868 opening of the Suez Canal cut the duration of transportation and communication between Spain and the Philippines by half and augured a period of increased and more direct contact between Europe and Asia...

Part 3: Concatenations

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7. Gothic

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pp. 229-270

...Spanish conquistador and founder of Manila Manuel López de Legazpi and various native leaders (chiefl y Rajah Sikatuna of Bohol and Rajah Soliman of Maynila), which amounted to a peace treaty between the two parties. In this procedure, the blood of each leader would be mixed with wine, which the leader of the opposed party would drink. It is through such a compact that Legazpi established a foothold in Luzon...

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Epilogue: Colonialism and Modernity

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pp. 271-286

...Colonial offi cials, scholars, and writers of the nineteenth century were fond of relating or referring to a popular anecdote that circulated in Manila and its environs from about 1845 concerning the death and legacy of an extraordinary priest and scientist, Fray Manuel Blanco, O. S. A. Blanco was primarily recognized in the colonies for two achievements: fi rst, he was...

Notes

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pp. 287-336

Bibliography

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pp. 337-358

Index

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pp. 359-372